1
Islamic Family Law (Federal Territories)
LAWS OF MALAYSIA
REPRINT
Act 303
ISLAMIC FAMILY LAW
(FEDERAL TERRITORIES)
ACT 1984
Incorporating all amendments up to 1 January 2006
PUBLISHED BY
THE COMMISSIONER OF LAW REVISION, MALAYSIA
UNDER THE AUTHORITY OF THE REVISION OF LAWS ACT 1968
IN COLLABORATION WITH
PERCETAKAN NASIONAL MALAYSIA BHD
2006
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ISLAMIC FAMILY LAW (FEDERAL TERRITORIES)
ACT 1984
Date of Royal Assent
... ... ... ... ...
27 June 1984
Date of publication in the Gazette ... ... ...
28 June 1984
PREVIOUS REPRINTS
First Reprint
...
...
...
...
...
2001
Second Reprint ...
...
...
...
...
2005
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LAWS OF MALAYSIA
Act 303
ISLAMIC FAMILY LAW (FEDERAL TERRITORIES)
ACT 1984
ARRANGEMENT OF SECTIONS
PART I
PRELIMINARY
Section
1.
Short title, application and commencement
2.
Interpretation
3.
Saving of prerogative
4.
Application
5.
Criterion for deciding whether a person is a Muslim
6.
Subsisting valid marriages deemed to be registered under this Act and
dissoluble only under this Act
PART II
MARRIAGE
7.
Persons by whom marriages may be solemnized
8.
Minimum age for marriage
9.
Relationships prohibiting marriage
10.
Persons of other religions
11.
Void marriages
12.
Non-registrable marriages
13.
Consent required
14.
Marriage of a woman
15.
Betrothal
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Laws of Malaysia
Preliminaries to a Marriage
Section
16.
Application for permission to marry
17.
Issue of permission to marry
18.
Reference to an action by Syariah Judge
19.
Permission necessary before solemnization
20.
Place of marriage
21.
Mas kahwin and pemberian
22.
Entry in Marriage Register
23.
Polygamy
24.
Solemnization of marriages in Malaysian Embassies, etc., abroad
PART III
REGISTRATION OF MARRIAGES
25.
Registration
26.
Marriage certificate and ta'liq certificate
27.
Reporting of void or illegal marriages
28.
Appointment of Chief Registrar, Registrars, Deputy Registrars and
Assistant Registrars of Muslim Marriages, Divorces, and Ruju'
29.
Books and Registers to be kept of all marriages
30.
Copies of entries to be sent to Chief Registrar
31.
Registration of foreign marriage of a person resident in the Federal
Territory
32.
Unlawful registers
33.
Voluntary registration of Muslim marriages previously solemnized under
any law
34.
Legal effect of registration
PART IV
PENALTIES AND MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS
RELATING TO THE SOLEMNIZATION AND
REGISTRATION OF MARRIAGES
35.
Omission to appear before Registrar within prescribed time
36.
Contravention of section 32
37.
Interference with marriage
38.
False declaration or statement for procuring marriage
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Islamic Family Law (Federal Territories)
Section
39.
Unauthorized solemnization of marriage
40.
Offences relating to solemnization of marriage
41.
Sanction for prosecution
42.
Correction of errors
43.
Inspection of Marriage Register and index
44.
Proof
PART V
DISSOLUTION OF MARRIAGE
45.
Extent of power to make any order
46.
Change of religion
47.
Divorce by talaq or by order
48.
Arbitration by Hakam
49.
Khul' divorce or cerai tebus talaq
50.
Divorce under ta'liq or stipulation
50A. Divorce by li'an
51.
Resumption of conjugal relationship or ruju'
52.
Order for dissolution of marriage or fasakh
53.
Presumption of death
54.
Maintenance of Register of Divorces and Annulments
55.
Registration of divorces
55A. Registration of divorces outside the Court
56.
Mut'ah or consolatory gift to woman divorced without just cause
57.
Right to mas kahwin, etc., not to be affected
58.
Power of court to order division of harta sepencarian
PART VI
MAINTENANCE OF WIFE, CHILDREN AND OTHERS
59.
Power of Court to order maintenance of wife, and the effect of nusyuz
60.
Power of Court to order maintenance of certain persons
61.
Assessment of maintenance
62.
Power of Court to order security for maintenance
63.
Compounding of maintenance
64.
Duration of orders for maintenance
65.
Right to maintenance or pemberian after divorce
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Section
66.
Power of Court to vary orders for maintenance
67.
Power of Court to vary agreements for maintenance
68.
Maintenance payable under order of Court to be inalienable
69.
Recovery of arrears of maintenance
70.
Interim maintenance
71.
Right to accommodation
72.
Duty to maintain children
73.
Power of Court to order maintenance for children
74.
Power of Court to order security for maintenance of a child
75.
Power of Court to vary order for custody or maintenance of a child
76.
Power of Court to vary agreement for custody or maintenance of a child
77.
Recovery of arrears of maintenance of a child
78.
Duty to maintain child accepted as member of family
79.
Duration of order for maintenance of a child
80.
Duty to maintain illegitimate children
PART VII
GUARDIANSHIP
Hadhanah or Custody of Children
81.
Persons entitled to custody of a child
82.
Qualifications necessary for custody
83.
How right of custody is lost
84.
Duration of custody
85.
Custody of illegitimate children
86.
Power of the Court to make order for custody
87.
Orders subject to conditions
Guardianship of Person and Property
88.
Persons entitled to guardianship
89.
Power over immovable and movable property
90.
Appointment of guardians by the Court
91.
Appointment of mother as testamentary guardian
92.
Joint guardian with mother
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Islamic Family Law (Federal Territories)
Section
93.
Variation of power of guardian of property
94.
Removal of guardian
95.
Security to be given
96.
Limitation of powers of guardian appointed by Court
97.
Guardian may not give discharge for capital property
98.
Guardian may support minor out of income
99.
Special order in case of small estate
100.
Application for opinion, etc.
101.
Prohibition order by Court
102.
Guardian of orphan
103.
(Deleted)
104.
Court to have regard to advice of welfare officers, etc.
105.
Power of Court to restrain taking of child out of Malaysia
Other Reliefs
106.
Power of Court to set aside and prevent dispositions intended to defeat
claims to maintenance
107.
Injunction against molestation
PART VIII
MISCELLANEOUS
108.
Recognition of Muslim marriages contracted outside the Federal Territory
109.
Recognition of marriages contracted in Embassies, etc., in the Federal
Territory
Legitimacy
110.
Ascription of paternity
111.
Birth more than four years after dissolution of marriage
112.
Birth after declaration of completion of `iddah
113.
Syubhah intercourse
114.
Conditions for valid acknowledgment
115.
Presumption from acknowledgment rebuttable
116.
Acknowledgment by a woman in `iddah
117.
Acknowledging another as mother or father
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Section
118.
Acknowledgment other than as a child, mother, or father
119.
Acknowledgment irrevocable
Order to Resume Cohabitation
120.
Application by deserted wife
Appeals
121.
Appeal
122.
(Deleted)
PART IX
PENALTIES
123.
Polygamy without Court's permission
124.
Divorce outside Court and without Court's permission
125.
Failure to report
126.
Desertion of wife
127.
Ill-treatment of wife
128.
Failure to give proper justice to wife
129.
Disobedience of wife
130.
Apostacy to annul marriage
131.
Illicit intercourse between divorced persons
132.
Wilful neglect to comply with order
133.
Attempts and abetment
PART X
GENERAL
134.
Power to make rules
135.
Cessation of application of Selangor Enactment 3 of 1952
SCHEDULE
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Islamic Family Law (Federal Territories)
LAWS OF MALAYSIA
Act 303
ISLAMIC FAMILY LAW (FEDERAL TERRITORIES)
ACT 1984
An Act to enact certain provisions of the Islamic Family Law in
respect of marriage, divorce, maintenance, guardianship, and other
matters connected with family life.
[29 April 1987, P.U. (B) 236/1987]
BE IT ENACTED by the Seri Paduka Baginda Yang di-Pertuan
Agong with the advice and consent of the Dewan Negara and
Dewan Rakyat in Parliament assembled, and by the authority of
the same, as follows:
PART I
PRELIMINARY
Short title, application and commencement
1. (1) This Act may be cited as the Islamic Family Law (Federal
Territories) Act 1984 and applies only to the Federal Territories
of Kuala Lumpur and *Labuan.
(2) This Act shall come into operation on a date to be appointed
by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong by notification in the Gazette.
Interpretation
2. (1) In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires--
"Administration Act" means the Administration of Islamic Law
(Federal Territories) Act 1993 [Act 505];
*NOTE--This Act is extended to the Federal Territory of Putrajaya vide the Federal Territory of
Putrajaya (Extension and Modification of Islamic Family Law (Federal Territory) Act 1984 Order
2002--see P.U. (A) 247/2002
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*"Administration Enactment" means the Administration of Muslim
Law Enactment 1952 of the State of Selangor [En. Selangor 3 of
1952]--
(a) in relation to the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur, as
m o d i f i e d by the Federal Territory (Modification of
Administration of Muslim Law Enactment) Orders 1974
[P.U. (A) 44/1974], 1981 [P.U. (A) 390/1981] and 1988
[P.U. (A) 163/1988, P.U. (A) 263/1988] made pursuant
to subsection 6(4) of the Constitution (Amendment) (No.
2) Act 1973 [Act A206] and in force in the Federal Territory
of Kuala Lumpur by virtue of subsection 6(1) of that Act;
(b) in relation to the Federal Territory of Labuan, as modified
a n d extended by the Federal Territory of Labuan
(Modification and Extension of Administration of Muslim
Law Enactment) Order 1985 [P.U. (A) 352/1985] made
pursuant to section 7 of the Constitution (Amendment)
(No. 2) Act 1984 [Act A585];
"anak dara" means a woman who has not had sexual intercourse,
whether she has been married or not;
" a p p o i n t e d  date"  means  the  date  appointed  under
subsection 1(2) for the coming into operation of this Act;
"baligh" means the age of puberty in accordance with Hukum
Syarak;
"Chief Registrar" means a Chief Registrar of Muslim Marriages,
Divorces, and Ruju' appointed under section 28;
"Chief Syariah Prosecutor" means the officer appointed under
subsection 58(1) of the Administration Act;
"Court" or "Syariah Court" means the Syariah Subordinate Court
or the Syariah High Court constituted under section 40 of the
Administration Act;
"darar syarie" means harm, according to what is normally
recognized by Islamic Law, affecting a wife in respect of religion,
life, body, mind, moral or property;
*NOTE--In relation to the Federal Territory of Putrajaya, as modified and extended by the Federal
Territory of Putrajaya (Extension and Modification of the Islamic Family Law (Federal Territory)
[Act 1984] Order 2002 made pursuant to section 7 of the Constitution (Amendment) Act 2001--
see P.U. (A) 247/2002.
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Islamic Family Law (Federal Territories)
"fasakh" means the annulment of a marriage by reason of
any circumstance permitted by Islamic Law in accordance with
section 52;
*"Federal Territory" means the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur
or Labuan, as the case may require;
**Federal Territories" means the Federal Territories of Kuala
Lumpur and Labuan;
"fosterage" means the suckling of a baby up to sufficiency by
a woman who is not its natural mother for at least five times during
the first two years of its life;
"harta sepencarian" means property jointly acquired by husband
and wife during the subsistence of marriage in accordance with the
conditions stipulated by Hukum Syarak;
"Hukum Syarak" means Islamic Law according to any recognized
Mazhab;
"illegitimate" in relation to a child means born out of wedlock
but not as a result of syubhah intercourse;
"janda" means a woman who has been married and divorced
after consummation;
"kariah masjid" in relation to a mosque, means the area, the
boundaries of which are determined under section 75 of the
Administration Act;
"Kitabiyah" means--
(a) a woman whose ancestors were from the Bani Ya'qub;
or
(b) a Christian woman whose ancestors were Christians before
the prophethood of the Prophet Muhammad; or
(c) a Jewess whose ancestors were Jews before the prophethood
of the Prophet Isa;
*NOTE--In its application to the Federal Territory of Putrajaya, substitute for the words
"Kuala Lumpur or Labuan" the words "Kuala Lumpur, Labuan or Putrajaya"see paragraph 4(b)
P.U. (A) 247/2002.
**NOTE--In its application to the Federal Territory of Putrajaya, substitute for the words
"Kuala Lumpur and Labuan" the words "Kuala Lumpur, Labuan or Putrajaya"see paragraph 4(c)
P.U. (A) 247/2002.
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"Majlis" means the Majlis Agama Islam Wilayah Persekutuan
constituted under section 4 of the Administration Act;
"mas kahwin" means the obligatory marriage payment due under
Hukum Syarak by the husband to the wife at the time the marriage
is solemnized, whether in the form of money actually paid or
acknowledged as a debt with or without security, or in the form
of something that, according to Hukum Syarak, is capable of being
valued in terms of money;
"mut'ah' means a consolatory gift that is reasonable according
to Hukum Syarak, given to a divorced wife;
"nasab" means descent based on lawful blood relationship;
"Peguam Syarie" means a person admitted under section 59 of
the Administration Act to be Peguam Syarie;
"pemberian" means a gift whether in the form of money or
things given by a husband to a wife at the time of the marriage;
"Registrar" means a Senior Registrar of Muslim Marriages,
Divorces, and Ruju' appointed under section 28, and includes a
Registrar and an Assistant Registrar;
"resident" means permanently or ordinarily living in a particular
area;
"ruju'" means a return to the original married state;
" S y a r i a h Appeal Court" means the Syariah Appeal Court
constituted under subsection 40(3) of the Administration Act;
"Syariah Judge" or "Judge" means Judges of the Syariah High
Court appointed under subsection 43(1) of the Administration Act;
"syubhah intercourse" means intercourse performed on erroneous
impression that the marriage was valid or intercourse by mistake
and includes any intercourse not punishable by Had in Islam;
" t a ' l i q" means a promise expressed by the husband after
solemnization of marriage in accordance with Hukum Syarak and
the provisions of this Act;
"thayyib" means a woman who has had sexual intercourse;
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Islamic Family Law (Federal Territories)
"wali Mujbir" means the father or paternal grandfather and
above;
"wali Raja" means a wali authorized by the Yang di-Pertuan
Agong, in the case of the Federal Territories, Malacca, Penang,
Sabah and Sarawak, or by the Ruler, in the case of any other
States, to give away in marriage a woman who has no wali from
nasab;
"widow" means a woman whose husband has died;
"widower" means a man whose wife has died.
(2) All words and expressions used in this Act and not herein
defined but defined in the Interpretation Acts 1948 and 1967 [Act
388] shall have the meanings thereby assigned to them respectively
by the Act.
(3) For the avoidance of doubt as to the identity or interpretation
of the words and expressions used in this Act that are listed in the
Schedule, reference may be made to the Arabic script form for
those words and expressions shown against them therein.
(4) The Yang di-Pertuan Agong may from time to time amend,
delete from, or add, to the Schedule.
Saving of prerogative
3.  Nothing contained in this Act shall derogate from or affect the
prerogative rights and powers of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong as the
Head of the religion of Islam in the Federal Territories, as declared
and set forth in the Federal Constitution.
Application
4.  Save as is otherwise expressly provided, this Act shall apply
to all Muslims living in the Federal Territory and to all Muslims
resident in the Federal Territory who are living outside the Federal
Territory.
Criterion for deciding whether a person is a Muslim
5.  If for the purposes of this Act any question arises as to whether
a person is a Muslim, that question shall be decided according to
the criterion of general reputation, without making any attempt to
question the faith, beliefs, conduct, behaviour, character, acts, or
omissions of that person.
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Subsisting valid marriages deemed to be registered under this
Act and dissoluble only under this Act
6. (1) Nothing in this Act shall affect the validity of any Muslim
marriage solemnized under any law wheresoever prior to the appointed
date.
(2) Such marriage, if valid under the law under which it was
solemnized, shall be deemed to be registered under this Act.
(3) Every such marriage, unless void under the law under which
it was solemnized, shall continue until dissolved--
(a) by the death of one of the parties;
(b) by such talaq as may be pronounced under this Act;
(c) by order of a Court of competent jurisdiction; or
(d) by a declaration of nullity made by a Court of competent
jurisdiction.
PART II
MARRIAGE
Persons by whom marriages may be solemnized
7. (1) A marriage in the Federal Territory shall be in accordance
with the provisions of this Act and shall be solemnized in accordance
with Hukum Syarak by--
(a) the wali in the presence of the Registrar;
(b) the representative of the wali in the presence and with
the permission of the Registrar; or
(c) the Registrar as the representative of the wali.
(2) Where a marriage involves a woman who has no wali from
nasab in accordance with Hukum Syarak, the marriage shall be
solemnized only by the wali Raja.
Minimum age for marriage
8.  No marriage may be solemnized under this Act where either
the man is under the age of eighteen or the woman is under the
age of sixteen except where the Syariah Judge has granted his
permission in writing in certain circumstances.
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Islamic Family Law (Federal Territories)
Relationships prohibiting marriage
9. (1) No man or woman, as the case may be, shall, on the ground
of consanguinity, marry--
(a) his mother or father;
(b) his grandmother or upwards, whether on the side of his
father or his mother, and his or her ascendants, how-
high-soever;
(c) his daughter or her son and his granddaughter or her
grandson and his or her descendants, how-low-soever;
(d) his sister or her brother of the same parents, his sister or
her brother of the same father, and his sister or her brother
of the same mother;
(e) the daughter of his brother or sister, or the son of her
brother or sister and the descendants, how-low-soever, of
the brother or sister;
(f) his aunt or her uncle on his father's side and her or his
ascendants;
(g) his aunt or her uncle on his mother's side and her or his
ascendants.
(2) No man or woman, as the case may be, shall, on the ground
of affinity, marry--
(a) his mother-in-law or father-in-law and the ascendants of
his wife, how-high-soever;
(b) his stepmother or her stepfather, being his father's wife
or her mother's husband;
(c) his stepgrandmother, being the wife of his grandfather or
the husband of her grandmother, whether on the side of
the father or the mother;
(d) his daughter-in-law or her son-in-law;
(e) his stepdaughter or her stepson and her or his descendants,
how-low-soever from a wife or a husband with whom the
marriage has been consummated.
(3) No man or woman, as the case may be, shall, on the ground
of fosterage, marry any woman or any man connected with him
or her through some act of suckling where, if it had been instead
an act of procreation, the woman or man would have been within
the prohibited degrees of consanguinity or affinity.
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(4) No man shall have two wives at any one time who are so
related to each other by consanguinity, affinity, or fosterage that
if either of them had been a male a marriage between them would
have been illegal in Hukum Syarak.
Persons of other religions
10. (1) No man shall marry a non-Muslim except a Kitabiyah.
(2) No woman shall marry a non-Muslim.
Void marriages
11.  A marriage shall be void unless all conditions necessary,
according to Hukum Syarak, for the validity thereof are satisfied.
Non-registrable marriages
12. (1) A marriage in contravention of this Act shall not be registrable
under this Act.
(2) Notwithstanding subsection (1) and without prejudice to
subsection 40(2), a marriage which has been solemnized contrary
to any provision of this Part but is otherwise valid according to
Hukum Syarak may be registered under this Act with an order
from the Court.
Consent required
13.  A marriage shall not be recognized and shall not be regis-
tered under this Act unless both parties to the marriage have
consented thereto, and either--
(a) the wali of the woman has consented thereto in accor-
dance with Hukum Syarak; or
(b) the Syariah Judge having jurisdiction in the place where
the woman resides or any person generally or specially
authorized in that behalf by the Syariah Judge has, after
due inquiry in the presence of all parties concerned, granted
his consent thereto as wali Raja in accordance with Hukum
Syarak; such consent may be given wherever there is no
wali by nasab in accordance with Hukum Syarak available
to act or if the wali cannot be found or where the wali
refuses his consent without sufficient reason.
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Islamic Family Law (Federal Territories)
Marriage of a woman
14. (1) No woman shall, during the subsistence of her marriage
to a man, be married to any other man.
(2) Where the woman is a janda--
(a) subject to paragraph (c), she shall not, at any time prior
to the expiry of the period of `iddah, which shall be
calculated in accordance with Hukum Syarak, be married
to any person other than to the man from whom she was
last divorced;
(b) she shall not be married unless she has produced--
(i) a certificate of divorce lawfully issued under the
law for the time being in force; or
(ii) a certified copy of the entry relating to her divorce
in the appropriate register of divorce; or
(iii) a certificate, which may, upon her application, be
granted after due inquiry by the Syariah Judge having
jurisdiction in the place where the application is
made, to the effect that she is a janda;
(c) if the divorce was by ba-in kubra, that is to say, three
talaq, she shall not be remarried to her previous husband,
unless she has been lawfully married to some other person
and the marriage has been consummated and later lawfully
dissolved, and the period of `iddah has expired.
(3) If the woman alleges she was divorced before the marriage
had been consummated, she shall not, during the ordinary period
of `iddah for a divorce, be married to any person other than her
previous husband, except with the permission of the Syariah Judge
having jurisdiction in the place where she resides.
(4) Where the woman is a widow--
(a) she shall not be married to any person at any time prior
to the expiration of the period of `iddah, which shall be
calculated in accordance with Hukum Syarak;
(b) she shall not be married unless she has produced a certificate
of the death of her late husband or otherwise proved his
death.
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Betrothal
15.  If any person has, either orally or in writing, and either
personally or through an intermediary, entered into a betrothal in
accordance with Hukum Syarak, and subsequently refuses without
lawful reason to marry the other party, the other party being willing
to marry, the party in default shall be liable to return the betrothal
gifts, if any, or the value thereof and to pay whatever moneys have
been expended in good faith by or for the other party in prepa-
ration for the marriage, and the same may be recovered by action
in the Court.
Preliminaries to a Marriage
Application for permission to marry
16. (1) Whenever it is desired to solemnize a marriage in the
Federal Territory, each of the parties to the intended marriage shall
apply in the prescribed form for permission to marry to the Registrar
for the kariah masjid in which the woman is resident.
(2) If the man is resident in a kariah masjid different from that
of the woman, or is resident in any State, his application shall bear
or be accompanied by a statement of the Registrar of his kariah
masjid or by the proper authority of the State, as the case may be,
to the effect that as far as he has been able to ascertain the matters
stated in the application are true.
(3) The application of each party must be delivered to the Registrar
at least seven days before the proposed date of marriage, but the
Registrar may allow a shorter period in any particular case.
(4) The applications of the parties shall be treated as a joint
application.
Issue of permission to marry
17.  Subject to section 18, the Registrar, on being satisfied of the
truth of the matters stated in the application, of the legality of the
intended marriage, and, where the man is already married, that the
permission required by section 23 has been granted, shall, at any
time after the application and upon payment of the prescribed fee,
issue to the applicants his permission to marry in the prescribed
form.
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Islamic Family Law (Federal Territories)
Reference to and action by Syariah Judge
18. (1) In any of the following cases, that is to say--
(a) where either of the parties to the intended marriage is
below the age specified in section 8; or
(b) where the woman is a janda to whom subsection 14(3)
applies; or
(c) where the woman has no wali from nasab, according to
Hukum Syarak,
the Registrar shall, instead of acting under section 17, refer the
application to the Syariah Judge having jurisdiction in the place
where the woman resides.
(2) The Syariah Judge on being satisfied of the truth of the
matters stated in the application and the legality of the intended
marriage and that the case is one that merits the giving of permission
for the purposes of section 8, or permission for the purposes of
subsection 14(3), or his consent to the marriage being solemnized
by wali Raja for the purposes of paragraph 13(b), as the case may
be, shall, at any time after reference of the application to him and
upon payment of the prescribed fee, issue to the applicants his
permission to marry in the prescribed form.
Permission necessary before solemnization
19.  No marriage shall be solemnized unless a permission to marry
has been given--
(a) by the Registrar under section 17 or by the Syariah Judge
under section 18, where the marriage involves a woman
resident in the Federal Territory; or
(b) by the proper authority of a State, where the marriage
involves a woman resident in that State.
Place of marriage
20. (1) No marriage shall be solemnized except in the kariah
masjid in which the woman resides, but the Registrar or Syariah
Judge giving permission to marry under section 17 or 18 may give
permission for the marriage to be solemnized elsewhere, whether
in the Federal Territory or in any State.
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(2) A permission under subsection (1) may be expressed in the
permission to marry given under section 17 or 18.
(3) Notwithstanding subsection (1), a marriage may be solem-
nized in a kariah masjid other than that where the woman resides
if--
(a) in a case where the woman resides in the Federal Ter-
ritory, a permission for the marriage to be solemnized in
that kariah masjid has been given under section 17 or 18
and the permission for the solemnization of the marriage
in other kariah masjid has been given under subsection
(1); or
(b) in a case where the woman resides in a State, a permis-
sion to marry and a permission for the marriage to be
solemnized in other kariah masjid have been given by
the proper authority of that State.
Mas kahwin and pemberian
21. (1) The mas kahwin shall ordinarily be paid by the man or his
representative to the woman or her representative in the presence
of the person solemnizing the marriage and at least two other
witnesses.
(2) The Registrar shall, in respect of every marriage to be registered
by him, ascertain and record--
(a) the value and other particulars of the mas kahwin;
(b) the value and other particulars of any pemberian;
(c) the value and other particulars of any part of the mas
kahwin or pemberian or both that was promised but not
paid at the time of the solemnization of the marriage, and
the promised date of payment; and
(d) particulars of any security given for the payment of any
mas kahwin or pemberian.
Entry in Marriage Register
22. (1) Immediately after the solemnization of a marriage, the
Registrar shall enter the prescribed particulars and the prescribed
or other ta'liq of the marriage in the Marriage Register.
(2) The entry shall be attested to by the parties to the marriage,
by the wali, and by two witnesses other than the Registrar, present
at the time the marriage is solemnized.
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(3) The entry shall then be signed by the Registrar.
Polygamy
23. (1) No man, during the subsistence of a marriage, shall, except
with the prior permission in writing of the Court, contract another
marriage with another woman nor shall such marriage contracted
without such permission be registered under this Act:
Provided that the Court may if it is shown that such marriage
is valid according to Hukum Syarak order it to be registered subject
to section 123.
(2) Subsection (1) applies to the marriage in the Federal Ter-
ritory of a man who is resident within or outside the Federal
Territory and to the marriage outside the Federal Territory of a
man resident in the Federal Territory.
(3) An application for permission shall be submitted to the
Court in the prescribed manner and shall be accompanied by a
declaration stating the grounds on which the proposed marriage is
alleged to be just and necessary, the present income of the appli-
cant, particulars of his commitments and his ascertainable finan-
cial obligations and liabilities, the number of his dependants, including
persons who would be his dependants as a result of the proposed
marriage, and whether the consent or views of the existing wife
or wives on the proposed marriage have been obtained.
(4) On receipt of the application, the Court shall summon the
applicant and his existing wife or wives to be present at the hear-
ing of the application, which shall be in camera, and the Court
may grant the permission applied for if satisfied--
(a) that the proposed marriage is just and necessary, having
regard to such circumstances as, among others, the fol-
lowing, that is to say, sterility, physical infirmity, physi-
cal unfitness for conjugal relations, wilful avoidance of
an order for restitution of conjugal rights, or insanity on
the part of the existing wife or wives;
(b) that the applicant has such means as to enable him to
support as required by Hukum Syarak all his wives and
dependants, including persons who would be his dependants
as a result of the proposed marriage;
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(c) that the applicant would be able to accord equal treat-
ment to all his wives as required by Hukum Syarak; and
(d) that the proposed marriage would not cause darar syarie
to the existing wife or wives.
(e) (Deleted by Act A902).
(5) A copy of the application under subsection (3) and of the
statutory declaration required by that subsection shall be served
together with the summons on each existing wife.
(6) Any party aggrieved by or dissatisfied with any decision of
the Court may appeal against the decision in the manner provided
in the Administration Enactment for appeals in civil matters.
(7) Any person who contracts a marriage in contravention of
subsection (1) shall pay immediately the entire amount of the mas
kahwin and the pemberian due to the existing wife or wives, which
amount, if not so paid, shall be recoverable as a debt.
(8) The procedure for solemnization and registration of a marriage
under this section shall be similar in all respects to that applicable
to other marriages solemnized and registered in the Federal Territory
under this Act.
Solemnization of marriages in Malaysian Embassies, etc., abroad
24. (1) Subject to subsection (2), a marriage may be solemnized
in accordance with Hukum Syarak by the Registrar appointed
under subsection 28(3) at the Malaysian Embassy, High Commission,
or Consulate in any country that has not notified the Government
of Malaysia of its objection to solemnization of marriages at such
Embassy, High Commission, or Consulate.
(2) Before solemnizing a marriage under this section, the Reg-
istrar shall be satisfied--
(a) that one or both of the parties to the marriage are resi-
dents of the Federal Territory;
(b) that each party has the capacity to marry according to
Hukum Syarak and this Act; and
(c) that, where either party is not a resident of the Federal
Territory, the proposed marriage, if solemnized, will be
regarded as valid in the place where that party is resident.
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Islamic Family Law (Federal Territories)
(3) The procedure for solemnization and registration of a mar-
riage under this section shall be similar in all respects to that
applicable to other marriages solemnized and registered in the
Federal Territory under this Act as if the Registrar appointed for
a foreign country were a Registrar for the Federal Territory.
PART III
REGISTRATION OF MARRIAGES
Registration
25.  The marriage after the appointed date of every person resi-
dent in the Federal Territory and of every person living abroad
who is resident in the Federal Territory shall be registered in
accordance with this Act.
Marriage certificate and ta'liq certificate
26. (1) Upon registering any marriage and upon payment to him
of the prescribed fees, the Registrar shall issue marriage certifi-
cates in the prescribed form to both parties to the marriage.
(2) The Registrar shall also, upon payment of the prescribed
fees, issue a ta'liq certificate in the prescribed form to each of the
parties to the marriage.
Reporting of void or illegal marriages
27.  It shall be the duty of every person to report to the Registrar
the circumstances of any case in which it appears to him that any
alleged marriage was void or that any registrable marriage was
solemnized in contravention of this Act.
Appointment of Chief Registrar, Registrars, Deputy Registrars
and Assistant Registrars of Muslim Marriages, Divorces, and
Ruju'
28. (1) The Yang di-Pertuan Agong may appoint any qualified
public officer to be the Chief Registrar of Muslim Marriages,
Divorces, and Ruju' for the purposes of this Act, who shall have
general supervision and control over Registrars and the registration
of marriages, divorces, and ruju' under this Act.
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(2) The Yang di-Pertuan Agong may appoint so many qualified
persons as may be necessary, to be Senior Registrars, Registrars,
or Assistant Registrars of Muslim Marriages, Divorces, and Ruju'
for such kariah masjid in the Federal Territories as may be specified
in the appointments.
(3) The Yang di-Pertuan Agong may, by notification in the
Gazette, appoint any member of the diplomatic staff of Malaysia
in any country to be the Registrar of Muslim Marriages, Divorces,
and Ruju' for the purposes of this Act in that country.
(4) Every person appointed under subsection (2) who is not a
public officer shall be deemed to be a public officer for the pur-
poses of the Penal Code [Act 574].
Books and Registers to be kept of all marriages
29.  Every Registrar shall keep a Marriage Register and such
books as are prescribed by this Act or rules made under this Act,
and every marriage solemnized in the Federal Territory shall be
duly registered by the Registrar in his Marriage Register.
Copies of entries to be sent to Chief Registrar
30. (1) Every Registrar shall, as soon as practicable after the end
of each month, deliver to the Chief Registrar a true copy certified
under his hand of every entry made in the Marriage Register.
(2) All such copies shall be kept by the Chief Registrar in such
manner as may be prescribed and shall constitute the Marriage
Register of the Chief Registrar.
Registration of foreign marriage of a person resident in the
Federal Territory
31. (1) Where any person who is a resident of the Federal Ter-
ritory has contracted a valid marriage according to Hukum Syarak
abroad, not being a marriage registered under section 24, the person
shall, within six months after the date of the marriage, appear
before the nearest or most conveniently available Registrar of
Muslim Marriages, Divorces, and Ruju' abroad in order to register
the marriage, and the marriage, upon being registered, shall be
deemed to be registered under this Act.
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Islamic Family Law (Federal Territories)
(2) Where, before the expiry of the period of six months, the
return of either or both parties to the Federal Territory is contem-
plated and the marriage has not been registered abroad, registra-
tion of the marriage shall be effected within six months of the first
arrival of either or both of the parties in the Federal Territory by
the party or both parties appearing before any Registrar in the
Federal Territory and--
(a) producing to the Registrar the certificate of marriage or
such evidence, either oral or documentary, as may satisfy
the Registrar that the marriage did take place;
(b) furnishing such particulars as may be required by the
Registrar for the due registration of the marriage; and
(c) applying in the prescribed form for the registration of the
marriage and subscribing the declaration therein.
(3) The Registrar may dispense with the appearance of one of
the parties if he is satisfied that there exists good and sufficient
reason for the absence of the party and in that case the entry in
the Marriage Register shall include a statement of the reason for
the absence.
(4) Upon the registration of a marriage under this section, a
certified copy of the entry in the Marriage Register signed by the
Registrar shall be delivered or sent to the husband and another
copy to the wife, and another certified copy shall be sent, within
such period as may be prescribed, to the Chief Registrar who shall
cause all such certified copies to be bound together to constitute
the Foreign Muslim Marriages Register.
(5) Where the parties to a marriage required to be registered
under this section have not appeared before a Registrar within the
period specified in subsection (1), the marriage may, upon appli-
cation to the Registrar, be registered later on payment of such
penalty as may be prescribed.
Unlawful registers
32.  No person other than a Registrar appointed under this Act
shall--
(a) keep any book that is or purports to be a register kept
in accordance with this Act; or
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(b) issue to any person any document that is or purports to
be a copy of a certificate of a marriage or a certificate
of marriage registered by the Registrar.
Voluntary registration of Muslim marriages previously solem-
nized under any law
33. (1) Notwithstanding sections 6 and 31, the parties to any
marriage according to Hukum Syarak solemnized under any law
prior to or after the appointed date may, if the marriage has not
been registered, apply at any time to a Registrar in the prescribed
form for registration of the marriage.
(2) The Registrar may require the parties to the marriage to
appear before him and to produce such evidence of the marriage,
either oral or documentary, and to furnish such other particulars
as may be required by him.
(3) The Registrar may, on being satisfied of the truth of the
statements contained in the application, register the marriage by
entering the particulars thereof in the Marriage Register prescribed
for this purpose.
(4) The entry of the marriage in the Marriage Register shall be
signed by the Registrar making the entry and by both parties to
the marriage, if available, or, otherwise, by whichever party who
appears before the Registrar.
(5) Upon the registration of the marriage, a certified copy of the
entry in the Marriage Register signed by the Registrar and sealed
with his seal of office shall be delivered or sent to the husband
and another copy to the wife and a third shall be sent to the Chief
Registrar.
(6) The Registrar shall not register a marriage under this sec-
tion if he is satisfied that the marriage is void under this Act.
Legal effect of registration
34.  Nothing in this Act or rules made under this Act shall be
construed to render valid or invalid any marriage that otherwise
is invalid or valid, merely by reason of its having been or not
having been registered.
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Islamic Family Law (Federal Territories)
PART IV
PENALTIES AND MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS
RELATING TO THE SOLEMNIZATION AND
REGISTRATION OF MARRIAGES
Omission to appear before Registrar within prescribed time
35.  Any person who, being required by section 31 to appear
before a Registrar, fails to do so within the prescribed time commits
an offence and shall be punished with a fine not exceeding one
thousand ringgit or with imprisonment not exceeding six months
or both.
Contravention of section 32
36.  Any person who contravenes section 32 commits an offence
and shall be punished with a fine not exceeding five hundred
ringgit or with imprisonment not exceeding three months or with
both such fine and imprisonment; and for a second or subsequent
offence shall be punished with a fine not exceeding one thousand
ringgit or with imprisonment not exceeding six months or both.
Interference with marriage
37.  Unless permitted under Hukum Syarak, any person who uses
any force or threat--
(a) to compel a person to marry against his will; or
(b) to prevent a man who has attained the age of eighteen
years or a woman who has attained the age of sixteen
years from contracting a valid marriage,
commits an offence and shall be punished with a fine not exceeding
one thousand ringgit or with imprisonment not exceeding six months
or both.
False declaration or statement for procuring marriage
38.  Any person who for the purpose of procuring any marriage
under this Act intentionally makes any false declaration or state-
ment commits an offence and shall be punished with a fine not
exceeding one thousand ringgit or with imprisonment not exceed-
ing six months or both.
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Unauthorized solemnization of marriage
39.  Any person who, not being authorized thereto under this Act,
solemnizes or purports to solemnize any marriage, commits an
offence and shall be punished with a fine not exceeding one thou-
sand ringgit or with imprisonment not exceeding six months or
both.
Offences relating to solemnization of marriage
40. (1) Any person who knowingly solemnizes or purports to
solemnize, or officiates at, a marriage--
(a) without there being a permission to marry as required by
section 19; or
(b) otherwise than in the presence of at least two credible
witnesses other than the person solemnizing the mar-
riage,
commits an offence and shall be punished with a fine not exceed-
ing one thousand ringgit or with imprisonment not exceeding six
months or both.
(2) Any person who marries, or purports to marry, or goes
through a form of marriage with, any person contrary to any of
the provisions of Part II commits an offence and shall be punished
with a fine not exceeding one thousand ringgit or with imprison-
ment not exceeding six months or both.
Sanction for prosecution
41.  No prosecution for an offence under sections 35 to 40 shall
be instituted except with the sanction in writing of the Chief
Syariah Prosecutor.
Correction of errors
42. (1) If the Registrar is satisfied by statutory declaration or
otherwise that any entry relating to a marriage is erroneous in form
or substance, he may, in the presence of the persons married, or,
if they are absent, in the presence of two credible witnesses,
correct the error by ruling through the entry and making the cor-
rect entry and he shall thereupon cause the entry in the local
Marriage Register to be corrected in the same manner.
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Islamic Family Law (Federal Territories)
(2) The Registrar shall sign and date the correction made in the
certificate of marriage and the local Marriage Register.
(3) Every entry made under subsection (1) shall be attested by
the witnesses in whose presence it was made.
(4) A certified copy of the correction shall be sent forthwith to
the Chief Registrar for a similar correction to be made in his
Marriage Register.
Inspection of Marriage Register and index
43. (1) Every Marriage Register and index kept by the Chief
Registrar or Registrar under this Act shall be open to inspection
by any person upon payment of the prescribed fee.
(2) The Chief Registrar or Registrar, as the case may be, shall,
upon payment of the prescribed fee, furnish to any person requir-
ing it a copy of the entry in the Marriage Register and index,
certified under the hand and seal of office of the Chief Registrar
or Registrar, as the case may be.
Proof
44.  Every Marriage Register kept by the Chief Registrar or Registrar
under this Act and any copy of any entry therein, certified under
his hand and seal of office to be a true copy or extract, shall be
prima facie evidence in all courts and tribunals of the dates and
acts contained or set out in the Marriage Register, copy or extract.
PART V
DISSOLUTION OF MARRIAGE
Extent of power to make any order
45.  Save as is otherwise expressly provided, nothing in this Act
shall authorize the Court to make an order of divorce or an order
pertaining to a divorce or to permit a husband to pronounce a talaq
except--
(a) where the marriage has been registered or deemed to be
registered under this Act; or
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(b) where the marriage was contracted in accordance with
Hukum Syarak; and
(c) where the residence of either of the parties to the mar-
riage at the time when the application is presented is in
the Federal Territory.
Change of religion
46. (1) The renunciation of Islam by either party to a marriage
or his or her conversion to a faith other than Islam shall not by
itself operate to dissolve the marriage unless and until so confirmed
by the Court.
(2) The conversion to Islam by either party to a non-Muslim
marriage shall not by itself operate to dissolve the marriage unless
and until so confirmed by the Court.
Divorce by talaq or by order
47. (1) A husband or a wife who desires divorce shall present an
application for divorce to the Court in the prescribed form, accom-
panied by a declaration containing--
(a) particulars of the marriage and the names, ages and sex
of the children, if any, of the marriage;
(b) particulars of the facts giving the Court jurisdiction under
section 45;
(c) particulars of any previous matrimonial proceedings
between the parties, including the place of the proceedings;
(d) a statement as to the reasons for desiring divorce;
(e) a statement as to whether any, and, if so, what steps had
been taken to effect reconciliation;
(f) the terms of any agreement regarding maintenance and
habitation of the wife and the children of the marriage,
if any, the care and custody of the children of the marriage,
if any, and the division of any assets acquired through
the joint effort of the parties, if any, or, where no such
agreement has been reached, the applicant's proposals
regarding those matters; and
(g) particulars of the order sought.
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(2) Upon receiving an application for divorce, the Court shall
cause a summons to be served on the other party together with a
copy of the application and the statutory declaration made by the
applicant, and the summons shall direct the other party to appear
before the Court so as to enable it to inquire whether or not the
other party consents to the divorce.
(3) If the other party consents to the divorce and the Court is
satisfied after due inquiry and investigation that the marriage has
irretrievably broken down, the Court shall advise the husband to
pronounce one talaq before the Court.
(4) The Court shall record the fact of the pronouncement of one
talaq, and shall send a certified copy of the record to the appro-
priate Registrar and to the Chief Registrar for registration.
(5) Where the other party does not consent to the divorce or it
appears to the Court that there is reasonable possibility of a rec-
onciliation between the parties, the Court shall as soon as possible
appoint a conciliatory committee consisting of a Religious Officer
as Chairman and two other persons, one to act for the husband and
the other for the wife, and refer the case to the committee.
(6) In appointing the two persons under subsection (5), the
Court shall, where possible, give preference to close relatives of
the parties having knowledge of the circumstances of the case.
(7) The Court may give directions to the conciliatory commit-
tee as to the conduct of the conciliation and it shall conduct it in
accordance with such directions.
(8) If the committee is unable to agree or if the Court is not
satisfied with its conduct of the conciliation, the Court may re-
move the committee and appoint another committee in its place.
(9) The committee shall endeavour to effect reconciliation within
a period of six months from the date of it being constituted or such
further period as may be allowed by the Court.
(10) The committee shall require the attendance of the parties
and shall give each of them an opportunity of being heard and may
hear such other persons and make such inquiries as it thinks fit
and may, if it considers it necessary, adjourn its proceedings from
time to time.
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(11) If the conciliatory committee is unable to effect reconcili-
ation and is unable to persuade the parties to resume their conjugal
relationship, it shall issue a certificate to that effect and may
append to the certificate such recommendations as it thinks fit
regarding maintenance and custody of the minor children of the
marriage, if any, regarding division of property, and regarding
other matters related to the marriage.
(12) No Peguam Syarie shall appear or act for any party in any
proceeding before a conciliatory committee and no party shall be
represented by any person, other than a member of his or her
family, without the leave of the conciliatory committee.
(13) Where the committee reports to the Court that reconcili-
ation has been effected and the parties have resumed their conjugal
relationship, the Court shall dismiss the application for divorce.
(14) Where the committee submits to the Court a certificate that
it is unable to effect reconciliation and to persuade the parties to
resume the conjugal relationship, the Court shall advise the hus-
band to pronounce one talaq before the Court, and where the Court
is unable to procure the presence of the husband before the Court
to pronounce one talaq, or where the husband refuses to pro-
nounce one talaq, the Court shall refer the case to the Hakam for
action according to section 48.
(15) The requirement of subsection (5) as to reference to a
conciliatory committee shall not apply in any case--
(a) where the applicant alleges that he or she has been de-
serted by and does not know the whereabouts of the other
party;
(b) where the other party is residing outside Peninsular
Malaysia and it is unlikely that he or she will be within
the jurisdiction of the Court within six months after the
date of the application;
(c) where the other party is imprisoned for a term of three
years or more;
(d) where the applicant alleges that the other party is suffering
from incurable mental illness; or
(e) where the Court is satisfied that there are exceptional
circumstances which make reference to a conciliatory
committee impracticable.
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Islamic Family Law (Federal Territories)
(16) A talaq raj'i pronounced by a husband unless revoked
earlier, either expressly or constructively, or by an order of the
Court, shall not operate to dissolve the marriage until the expiry
of the `iddah period.
(17) If the wife is pregnant at the time the talaq is pronounced
or the order is made, the talaq or the order shall not be effective
to dissolve the marriage until the pregnancy ends.
Arbitration by Hakam
48. (1) If satisfied that there are constant quarrels (shiqaq) be-
tween the parties to a marriage, the Court may appoint in accor-
dance with Hukum Syarak two arbitrators or Hakam to act for the
husband and wife respectively.
(2) In appointing the Hakam under subsection (1), the Court
shall, where possible, give preference to close relatives of the
parties having knowledge of the circumstances of the case.
(3) The Court may give directions to the Hakam as to the conduct
of the arbitration and they shall conduct it in accordance with such
directions and Hukum Syarak.
(4) If the Hakam are unable to agree, or if the Court is not
satisfied with their conduct of the arbitration, the Court may re-
move them and appoint other Hakam in their place.
(5) The Hakam shall endeavour to obtain from their respective
principals full authority, and may, if their authority extends so far,
pronounce one talaq before the Court if so permitted by the Court,
and in that event the Court shall record that pronouncement of one
talaq, and send a certified copy of the record to the appropriate
Registrar and to the Chief Registrar for registration.
(6) If the Hakam are of the opinion that the parties should be
divorced but are unable for any reason to order a divorce, the
Court shall appoint other Hakam and shall confer on them author-
ity to order a divorce and shall, if they do so, record the order and
send a certified copy of the record to the appropriate Registrar and
to the Chief Registrar for registration.
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(7) Unless he is a close member of the family of the parties,
no person or Peguam Syarie shall be allowed to be present or
.represent any of the parties in the presence of the Hakam.
Khul' divorce or cerai tebus talaq
49. (1) Where the husband does not agree to voluntarily pronounce
a talaq, but the parties agree to a divorce by redemption or cerai
tebus talaq, the Court shall, after the amount of the payment of
tebus talaq is agreed upon by the parties, cause the husband to
pronounce a divorce by redemption, and such divorce is ba-in
sughra or irrevocable.
(2) The Court shall record the cerai tebus talaq accordingly and
send a certified copy of the record to the appropriate Registrar and
to the Chief Registrar for registration.
(3) Where the amount of the payment of tebus talaq is not
agreed upon by the parties, the Court may assess, in accordance
with Hukum Syarak, the amount, having regard to the status and
the means of the parties.
(4) Where the husband does not agree to a divorce by redemption
or does not appear before the Court as directed, or where it appears
to the Court that there is a reasonable possibility of a reconciliation,
the Court shall appoint a conciliatory committee as provided under
section 47 and that section shall apply accordingly.
Divorce under ta'liq or stipulation
50. (1) A married woman may, if entitled to a divorce in pursuance
of the terms of a ta'liq certificate made upon a marriage, apply
to the Court to declare that such divorce has taken place.
(2) The Court shall examine the application and make an inquiry
into the validity of the divorce and shall, if satisfied that the
divorce is valid according to Hukum Syarak, confirm and record
the divorce and send one certified copy of the record to the appropriate
Registrar and to the Chief Registrar for registration.
Divorce by li'an
50A. (1) Where the parties to a marriage have taken oath by way
of li'an according to Hukum Syarak before a Syariah Judge, upon
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judgment, the Syariah Judge shall order them to be farak and be
separated and live apart forever.
(2) The Court shall record the divorce by li'an accordingly and
send a certified copy of the record to the appropriate Registrar and
to the Chief Registrar for registration.
Resumption of conjugal relationship or ruju'
51. (1) In this section "revocable divorce" means a divorce by
one or two talaq not followed by completion of `iddah, and
"recohabit" means resume conjugal relations within the period
before the divorce has become irrevocable.
(2) If, after a revocable divorce, recohabitation takes place by
mutual consent, the parties shall within seven days report the fact
of recohabitation and other relevant particulars to the Registrar for
the kariah masjid in which they reside.
(3) The Registrar shall make such inquiry as may be necessary
and, if satisfied that recohabitation has taken place in accordance
with Hukum Syarak, shall register the recohabitation by endorsement
upon the entry relating to that divorce in the Register of Divorce,
if the divorce was registered by him, and shall require the parties
to deliver to him the relevant certificates of divorce and shall issue
to them certificates of recohabitation in the prescribed form.
(4) The Registrar shall also deliver a copy of the certificate of
r e c o h a b i t a t i o n to the Chief Registrar who shall register the
recohabitation by endorsement upon the entry relating to that divorce
in the Register of Divorce kept by him.
(5) Any party to a marriage who fails to report the fact of
recohabitation as required by subsection (2) commits an offence
and shall be punished with a fine not exceeding five hundred
ringgit or with imprisonment not exceeding six months or with
both such fine and imprisonment.
(6) If the divorce was not registered by the Registrar to whom
the report under subsection (2) is made, he shall record on the
certificates of divorce the serial number and particulars of the
certificates of recohabitation and shall forward the certificates of
divorce to the Registrar by whom they were issued together with
a copy of the certificates of recohabitation, and the other Registrar
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shall thereupon register the recohabitation by endorsement upon
the entry relating to that divorce in the Register of Divorce and
shall deliver the copy of the certificate of recohabitation to the
Chief Registrar who shall register the recohabitation by endorse-
ment upon the entry relating to that divorce in the Register of
Divorce kept by him.
(7) If a revocable divorce has taken place without the knowl-
edge of the wife, the husband shall not require or request the wife
to recohabit with him without disclosing to her the fact of the
divorce.
(8) If after a revocable divorce the husband pronounces a ruju'
and the wife has consented to the ruju', she may, on the applica-
tion of the husband, be ordered by the court to resume conjugal
relations, unless she shows good cause to the contrary, according
to Hukum Syarak, in which case the Court shall appoint a concil-
iatory committee as provided under section 47 and that section
shall apply accordingly.
(9) If after a revocable divorce the husband pronounces a ruju'
but the wife has not consented to the ruju' for reasons allowed by
Hukum Syarak, she shall not be ordered by the Court to resume
conjugal relations, but the Court shall appoint a conciliatory com-
mittee as provided under section 47 and that section shall apply
accordingly.
Order for dissolution of marriage or fasakh
52. (1) A woman married in accordance with Hukum Syarak,
shall be entitled to obtain an order for the dissolution of marriage
or fasakh on any one or more of the following grounds, namely--
(a) that the whereabouts of the husband have not been known
for a period of more than one year;
(b) that the husband has neglected or failed to provide for
her maintenance for a period of three months;
(c) that the husband has been sentenced to imprisonment for
a period of three years or more;
(d) that the husband has failed to perform, without reason-
able cause, his marital obligations (nafkah batin) for a
period of one year;
(e) that the husband was impotent at the time of marriage
and remains so and she was not aware at the time of the
marriage that he was impotent;
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Islamic Family Law (Federal Territories)
(f) that the husband has been insane for a period of two
years or is suffering from leprosy or vitilago or is suf-
fering from a venereal disease in a communicable form;
(g) that she, having been given in marriage by her wali Mujbir
before she attained the age of baligh, repudiated the
marriage before attaining the age of eighteen years, the
marriage not having been consummated;
(h) that the husband treats her with cruelty, that is to say,
inter alia--
(i) habitually assaults her or makes her life miserable
by cruelty of conduct; or
(ii) associates with women of evil repute or leads what,
according to Hukum Syarak, is an infamous life; or
(iii) attempts to force her to lead an immoral life; or
(iv) disposes of her property or prevents her from ex-
ercising her legal rights over it; or
(v) obstruct her in the observance of her religious
obligations or practice; or
(vi) if he has more wives than one, does not treat her
equitably in accordance with the requirements of
Hukum Syarak;
(i) that even after the lapse of four months the marriage has
still not been consummated owing to the wilful refusal
of the husband to consummate it;
(j) that she did not consent to the marriage or her consent
was not valid, whether in consequence of duress, mis-
take, unsoundness of mind, or any other circumstance
recognized by Hukum Syarak;
(k) that at the time of the marriage she, though capable of
giving a valid consent, was, whether continuously or
intermittently, a mentally disordered person within the
m e a n i n g of the Mental Disorders Ordinance 1952
[Ord. 31 of 1952] in the case of the Federal Territory
of Kuala Lumpur, or the Lunatics Ordinance of Sabah
[Sabah Cap. 74] in the case of the Federal Territory of
Labuan, and her mental disorder was of such a kind or
to such extent as to render her unfit for marriage;
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(l) any other ground that is recognized as valid for dissolu-
tion of marriages or fasakh under Hukum Syarak.
(1A) Any person married in accordance with Hukum Syarak
shall be entitled to obtain an order for the dissolution of marriage
or fasakh on the ground that the wife is incapacitated which pre-
vents sexual intercourse.
(2) No order shall be made on the ground in paragraph (1)(c)
until the sentence has become final and the husband has already
served one year of the sentence.
(3) Before making an order on the ground in paragraph (1)(e)
the Court shall, on application by the husband, make an order
requiring the husband to satisfy the Court within a period of six
months from the date of the order that he has ceased to be impo-
tent, and if the husband so satisfies the Court within that period,
no order shall be made on that ground.
(4) No order shall be made on any of the grounds in subsection
(1) if the husband satisfies the Court that the wife, with knowledge
that it was open to her to have the marriage repudiated, so con-
ducted herself in relation to the husband as to lead the husband
reasonably to believe that she would not seek to do so, and that
it would be unjust to the husband to make the order.
Presumption of death
53. (1) If the husband of any woman has died, or is believed to
have died, or has not been heard of for a period of four years or
more, and the circumstances are such that he ought, for the pur-
pose of enabling the woman to remarry, to be presumed in accor-
dance with Hukum Syarak to be dead, the Court may, on the
application of the woman and after such inquiry as may be proper,
issue in the prescribed form a certificate of presumption of death
of the husband and the Court may on the application of the woman
make an order for the dissolution of marriage or fasakh as pro-
vided for under section 52.
(2) A certificate issued under subsection (1) shall be deemed to
be a certificate of the death of the husband within the meaning of
paragraph 14(4)(b).
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(3) In the circumstances mentioned in subsection (1), a woman
shall not be entitled to remarry in the absence of a certificate
issued under subsection (1), notwithstanding that the High Court
may have given leave to presume the death of the husband.
(4) A certificate issued under subsection (1) shall be registered
as if it effected a divorce.
Maintenance of Register of Divorces and Annulments
54. (1) Every Registrar as well as the Chief Registrar shall each
maintain a Register of Divorces and Annulments and shall forth-
with enter therein the prescribed particulars of all orders of di-
vorce and annulment sent to him under subsection (2) and of all
orders of divorce and annulment for the registration of which
application is made under subsection (3).
(2) Every Court that grants and records an order of divorce or
annulment or that permits and records any talaq or any other form
of divorce shall forthwith send one certified copy of the record to
the appropriate Registrar and to the Chief Registrar for registration.
(3) Where a marriage that is solemnized in the Federal Terri-
tory is dissolved or annulled by an order of a Court of competent
jurisdiction outside the Federal Territory, either of the parties may
apply to the appropriate Registrar and to the Chief Registrar for
registration of the order, and the appropriate Registrar and the
Chief Registrar, on being satisfied that the order is one that should
be recognized as valid for the purposes of the law in the Federal
Territory, shall register the order.
(4) Where a pronouncement of talaq before the Court or an
order of divorce or annulment, wherever granted, has dissolved a
marriage that was solemnized in the Federal Territory and has
been registered under this Act or any written law in force before
this Act, the appropriate Registrar and the Chief Registrar shall,
on registering the talaq or order, cause the entry relating to that
marriage in the Marriage Register to be marked with the word
"Dissolved" and a reference to the proceedings in which the talaq
was pronounced or the order was made.
(5) Upon registering the talaq or order of divorce or annulment
and upon payment to him of the prescribed fees, the Chief Reg-
istrar shall issue the divorce or annulment certificates in the pre-
scribed form to both parties.
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Registration of divorces
55.  No pronouncement of talaq or order of divorce or annulment
shall be registered unless the Chief Registrar is satisfied that the
Court has made a final order relating to it.
Registration of divorces outside the Court
55A. (1) Notwithstanding section 54, a man who has divorced his
wife by the pronouncement of talaq outside the Court and without
permission of the Court, shall within seven days of the pronounce-
ment of the talaq report to the Court.
(2) The Court shall hold an inquiry to ascertain whether the
talaq that was pronounced is valid according to Hukum Syarak.
(3) If the Court is satisfied that the talaq that was pronounced
is valid according to Hukum Syarak, the Court shall, subject to
section 124--
(a) make an order approving the divorce by talaq;
(b) record the divorce; and
(c) send a copy of the record to the appropriate Registrar and
to the Chief Registrar for registration.
Mut'ah or consolatory gift to woman divorced without just
cause
56.  In addition to her right to apply for maintenance, a woman
who has been divorced without just cause by her husband may
apply to the Court for mut'ah or a consolatory gift, and the Court
may, after hearing the parties and upon being satisfied that the
woman has been divorced without just cause, order the husband
to pay such sum as may be fair and just according to Hukum
Syarak.
Right to mas kahwin, etc., not to be affected
57.  Nothing contained in this Act shall affect any right that a
married woman may have under Hukum Syarak to her mas kahwin
and pemberian or any part thereof on the dissolution of her mar-
riage.
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Islamic Family Law (Federal Territories)
Power of Court to order division of harta sepencarian
58. (1) The Court shall have power, when permitting the pro-
nouncement of talaq or when making an order of divorce, to order
the division between the parties of any assets acquired by them
during the marriage by their joint efforts or the sale of any such
assets and the division between the parties of the proceeds of sale.
(2) In exercising the power conferred by subsection (1), the
Court shall have regard to--
(a) the extent of the contributions made by each party in
money, property, or labour towards acquiring of the assets;
(b) any debts owing by either party that were contracted for
their joint benefit;
(c) the needs of the minor children, of the marriage, if any,
and, subject to those considerations, the Court shall incline to-
wards equality of division.
(3) The Court shall have power, when permitting the pronounce-
ment of talaq or when making an order of divorce, to order the
division between the parties of any assets acquired during the
marriage by the sole effort of one party to the marriage or the sale
of any such assets and the division between the parties of the
proceeds of sale.
(4) In exercising the power conferred by subsection (3), the
Court shall have regard to--
(a) the extent of the contributions made by the party who did
not acquire the assets, to the welfare of the family by
looking after the home or caring for the family;
(b) the needs of the minor children of the marriage, if any,
and, subject to those considerations, the Court may divide the
assets or the proceeds of sale in such proportions as the Court
thinks reasonable, but in any case the party by whose efforts the
assets were acquired shall receive a greater proportion.
(5) For the purposes of this section, references to assets ac-
quired during a marriage include assets owned before the marriage
by one party that have been substantially improved during the
marriage by the other party or by their joint efforts.
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PART VI
MAINTENANCE OF WIFE, CHILDREN AND OTHERS
Power of Court to order maintenance of wife, and the effect
of nusyuz
59. (1) The Court may, subject to Hukum Syarak, order a man to
pay maintenance to his wife or former wife.
(2) Subject to Hukum Syarak and confirmation by the Court,
a wife shall not be entitled to maintenance when she is nusyuz, or
unreasonably refuses to obey the lawful wishes or commands of
her husband, that is to say, inter alia--
(a) when she withholds her association with her husband;
(b) when she leaves her husband's home against his will; or
(c) when she refuses to move with him to another home or
place,
without any valid reason according to Hukum Syarak.
(3) As soon as the wife repents and obeys the lawful wishes and
commands of her husband, she ceases to be nusyuz.
Power of Court to order maintenance of certain persons
60.  The Court may order any person liable thereto according to
Hukum Syarak, to pay maintenance to another person where he is
incapacitated, wholly or partially, from earning a livelihood by
reason of mental or physical injury or ill-health and the Court is
satisfied that having regard to the means of the first-mentioned
person it is reasonable so to order.
Assessment of maintenance
61.  In determining the amount of any maintenance to be paid,
the Court shall base its assessment primarily on the means and
needs of the parties, regardless of the proportion the maintenance
bears to the income of the person against whom the order is made.
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Power of Court to order security for maintenance
62.  The Court may, when awarding maintenance, order the per-
son liable to pay the maintenance to secure the whole or any part
of it by vesting any property in trustees upon trust to pay the
maintenance or a part thereof out of the income from the property.
Compounding of maintenance
63.  An agreement for the payment, in money or other property,
of a capital sum in settlement of all future claims to maintenance
shall not be effective until it has been approved, with or without
conditions, by the Court, but when so approved shall be a good
defence to any claim for maintenance.
Duration of orders for maintenance
64.  Except where an order for maintenance is expressed to be for
any shorter period or is rescinded, and subject to section 65, an
order for maintenance shall expire on the death of the person
against whom or in whose favour the order was made, whichever
is the earlier.
Right to maintenance or pemberian after divorce
65. (1) The right of a divorced wife to receive maintenance from
her former husband under any order of Court shall cease on the
expiry of the period of `iddah or on the wife being nusyuz.
(2) The right of a divorced wife to receive a pemberian from
her former husband under an agreement shall cease on her remar-
riage.
Power of Court to vary orders for maintenance
66.  The Court may at any time and from time to time vary, or
may at any time rescind, any subsisting order for maintenance,
whether secured or unsecured, on the application of the person in
whose favour or against whom the order was made, where it is
satisfied that the order was based on any misrepresentation or
mistake of fact or where there has been any material change in the
circumstances.
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Power of Court to vary agreements for maintenance
67.  Subject to section 63, the Court may at any time and from
time to time vary the terms of any agreement as to maintenance
made between husband and wife, whether made before or after the
appointed date, where it is satisfied that there has been any material
change in the circumstances, notwithstanding any provision to the
contrary in the agreement.
Maintenance payable under order of Court to be inalienable
68.  Maintenance payable to any person under any order of Court
shall not be assignable or transferable or liable to be attached,
sequestered, or levied upon for, or in respect of, any debt or claim.
Recovery of arrears of maintenance
69. (1) Arrears of unsecured maintenance shall be recoverable as
a debt from the defaulter and, where they accrued due before the
making of a receiving order against the defaulter, shall be provable
in his bankruptcy and, where they accrued due before his death,
shall be a debt due from his estate.
(2) Arrears of unsecured maintenance that accrued due before
the death of the person entitled thereto shall be recoverable as a
debt by the legal personal representatives of the person.
Interim maintenance
70. (1) Where the Court is satisfied that there are grounds for
payment of maintenance, the Court may make an order against the
husband for payment of interim maintenance to take effect at once
and to be in force until an order of Court is made on the application
for maintenance.
(2) The husband may adjust the interim maintenance paid against
the amount ordered to be paid for maintenance under the order of
the Court, provided that the amount received by the wife, after any
deduction, is sufficient for her basic needs.
Right to accommodation
71. (1) A divorced woman is entitled to stay in the home where
she used to live when she was married, for so long as the husband
is not able to get other suitable accommodation for her.
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(2) The right to accommodation provided in subsection (1) shall
cease--
(a) if the period of `iddah has expired; or
(b) if the period of guardianship of the children has expired;
or
(c) if the woman has remarried; or
(d) if the woman has been guilty of open lewdness (fahisyah),
and thereupon the husband may apply to the Court for the return
of the home to him.
Duty to maintain children
72. (1) Except where an agreement or order of Court otherwise
provides, it shall be the duty of a man to maintain his children,
whether they are in his custody or the custody of any other person,
either by providing them with such accommodation, clothing, food,
medical attention, and education as are reasonable having regard
to his means and station in life or by paying the cost thereof.
(2) Except as aforesaid, it shall be the duty of a person liable
under Hukum Syarak, to maintain or contribute to the maintenance
of children if their father is dead or his whereabouts are unknown
or if and so far as he is unable to maintain them.
Power of Court to order maintenance for children
73. (1) The Court may at any time order a man to pay maintenance
for the benefit of any child of his--
(a) if he has refused or neglected to provide reasonably for
his child;
(b) if he has deserted his wife and the child is in her charge;
(c) during the pendency of any matrimonial proceedings; or
(d) when making or subsequent to the making of an order
placing the child in the custody of any other person.
(2) The Court shall have the corresponding power to order a
person liable under Hukum Syarak to pay or contribute towards
the maintenance of a child where it is satisfied that having regard
to his means it is reasonable so to order.
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(3) An order under subsection (1) or (2) may direct payment to
the person having custody or care and control of the child or to
the trustee for the child.
Power of Court to order security for maintenance of a child
74. (1) The Court may, when ordering the payment of mainte-
nance for the benefit of any child, order the person liable to pay
the maintenance to secure the whole or any part of it by vesting
any property in trustees upon trust to pay the maintenance or a part
thereof out of the income from the property.
(2) Failure to comply with the order requiring the person liable
to vest any property in trustee for the purpose of subsection (1)
shall be punishable as a contempt of Court.
Power of Court to vary order for custody or maintenance of
a child
75.  The Court may, on the application of any interested person,
at any time and from time to time vary, or at any time rescind,
any order for the custody or maintenance of a child, where it is
satisfied that the order was based on any misrepresentation or
mistake of fact or where there has been any material change in the
circumstances.
Power of Court to vary agreement for custody or maintenance
of a child
76.  The Court may at any time and from time to time vary the
terms of any agreement relating to the custody or maintenance of
a child, whether such agreement was made before or after the
appointed date, notwithstanding any provision to the contrary in
the agreement, where it is satisfied that it is reasonable and for the
welfare of the child so to do.
Recovery of arrears of maintenance of a child
77.  Section 69 shall apply, mutatis mutandis and according to
Hukum Syarak, to orders for the payment of maintenance for the
benefit of a child.
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Islamic Family Law (Federal Territories)
Duty to maintain child accepted as member of family
78. (1) Where a man has accepted a child who is not his child as
a member of his family, it shall be his duty to maintain the child
while he or she remains a child, so far as the parents of the child
fail to do so, and the Court may make such orders as may be
necessary to ensure the welfare of the child.
(2) The duty imposed by subsection (1) shall cease if the child
is taken back by either of his or her parents.
(3) Any sum expended by a man in maintaining a child as
required by subsection (1) shall be recoverable from the father or
mother of the child.
Duration of order for maintenance of a child
79.
Except--
(a) where an order for maintenance of a child is expressed
to be for any shorter period; or
(b) where any such order has been rescinded; or
(c) where any such order is made in favour of--
(i) a daughter who has not been married or who is, by
r e a s o n of some mental or physical disability,
incapable of maintaining herself;
(ii) a son who is, by reason of some mental or physical
disability, incapable of maintaining himself,
the order for maintenance shall expire on the attainment by the
child of the age of eighteen years, but the Court may, on application
by the child or any other person, extend the order for maintenance
to cover such further period as it thinks reasonable, to enable the
child to pursue further or higher education or training.
Duty to maintain illegitimate children
80. (1) If a woman neglects or refuses to maintain her illegitimate
child who is unable to maintain himself or herself, other than a
child born as a result of rape, the Court, upon due proof thereof,
may order the woman to make such monthly allowance as the
Court thinks reasonable.
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(2) (Deleted by Act A902).
(3) A monthly allowance under this section shall be payable
from the date of commencement of the neglect or refusal to maintain
or from such later date as may be specified in the order.
PART VII
GUARDIANSHIP
Hadhanah or Custody of Children
Persons entitled to custody of a child
81. (1) Subject to section 82, the mother shall be of all persons
the best entitled to the custody of her infant children during the
connubial relationship as well as after its dissolution.
(2) Where the Court is of the opinion that the mother is disqualified
under Hukum Syarak from having the right to hadhanah or custody
of her children, the right shall, subject to subsection (3), pass to
one of the following persons in the following order of preference,
that is to say--
(a) the maternal grandmother, how-high-soever;
(b) the father;
(c) the paternal grandmother, how-high-soever;
(d) the full sister;
(e) the uterine sister;
(f) the sanguine sister;
(g) the full sister's daughter;
(h) the uterine sister's daughter;
(i) the sanguine sister's daughter;
(j) the maternal aunt;
(k) the paternal aunt;
(l) the male relatives who could be their heirs as `asabah or
residuaries:
Provided that the custody of such person does not affect the
welfare of the child.
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(3) No man shall have a right to the custody of a female child
unless he is a muhrim, that is to say, he stands to her within the
prohibited degrees of relationship.
(4) Subject to sections 82 and 84, where there are several persons
of the same line or degree, all equally qualified and willing to take
charge of the child, the custody shall be entrusted to the one most
virtuous who shows the greatest tenderness to the child, and where
all are equally virtuous, then the senior among them in age shall
have the priority.
Qualifications necessary for custody
82.  A person to whom belongs the upbringing of a child, shall
be entitled to exercise the right of hadhanah if--
(a) she is a Muslim;
(b) she is of sound mind;
(c) she is of an age that qualifies her to bestow on the child
the care, love, and affection that the child may need;
(d) she is of good conduct from the standpoint of Islamic
morality; and
(e) she lives in a place where the child may not undergo any
risk morally or physically.
How right of custody is lost
83.
The right of hadhanah of a woman is lost--
(a) by her marriage with a person not related to the child
within the prohibited degrees if her custody in such case
will affect the welfare of the child but her right to custody
will revert if the marriage is dissolved;
(b) by her gross and open immorality;
(c) by her changing her residence so as to prevent the father
from exercising the necessary supervision over the child,
except that a divorced wife may take her own child to
her birth-place;
(d) by her abjuration of Islam;
(e) by her neglect of or cruelty to the child.
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Duration of custody
84. (1) The right of the hadhinah to the custody of a child terminates
upon the child attaining the age of seven years, in the case of a
male, and the age of nine years, in the case of a female, but the
Court may, upon application of the hadhinah, allow her to retain
the custody of the child until the attainment of the age of nine
years, in the case of a male, and the age of eleven years, in the
case of a female.
(2) After termination of the right of the hadhinah, the custody
devolves upon the father, and if the child has reached the age of
discernment (mumaiyiz), he or she shall have the choice of living
with either of the parents, unless the Court otherwise orders.
Custody of illegitimate children
85.  The custody of illegitimate children appertains exclusively
to the mother and her relations.
Power of the Court to make order for custody
86. (1) Notwithstanding section 81, the Court may at any time by
order choose to place a child in the custody of any one of the
p e r s o n s mentioned therein or, where there are exceptional
circumstances making it undesirable that the child be entrusted to
any one of those persons, the Court may by order place the child
in the custody of any other person or of any association the objects
of which include child welfare.
(2) In deciding in whose custody a child should be placed, the
paramount consideration shall be the welfare of the child and,
subject to that consideration, the Court shall have regard to--
(a) the wishes of the parents of the child; and
(b) the wishes of the child, where he or she is of an age to
express an independent opinion.
(3) It shall be a rebuttable presumption that it is for the good
of a child during his or her infancy to be with his or her mother,
but in deciding whether that presumption applies to the facts of
any particular case, the Court shall have regard to the undesirabil-
ity of disturbing the life of a child by changes of custody.
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(4) Where there are two or more children of a marriage, the
Court shall not be bound to place both or all in the custody of the
same person but shall consider the welfare of each independently.
(5) The Court may, if necessary, make an interim order to place
the child in the custody of any person or institution or association
and the order shall forthwith be enforced and continue to be enforced
until the Court makes an order for the custody.
Orders subject to conditions
87. (1) An order for custody may be made subject to such conditions
as the Court thinks fit to impose and, subject to such conditions,
if any, as may from time to time apply, shall entitle the person
given custody to decide all questions relating to the upbringing
and education of the child.
(2) Without prejudice to the generality of subsection (1), an
order for custody may--
(a) contain conditions as to the place where the child is to
live and as to the manner of his or her education;
(b) provide for the child to be temporarily in the care and
control of some person other than the person given custody;
(c) provide for the child to visit a parent deprived of custody
or any member of the family of a parent who is dead or
has been deprived of custody at such times and for such
periods as the Court considers reasonable;
(d) give a parent deprived of custody or any member of the
family of a parent who is dead or has been deprived of
custody the right of access to the child at such times and
with such frequency as the Court considers reasonable;
or
(e) prohibit the person given custody from taking the child
out of Malaysia.
Guardianship of Person and Property
Persons entitled to guardianship
88. (1) Although the right to hadhanah or the custody of the child
may be vested in some other person, the father shall be the first
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and primary natural guardian of the person and property of his
minor child, and where he is dead, the legal guardianship devolves
upon one of the following persons in the following order of preference,
that is to say--
(a) the father's father;
(b) the executor appointed by the father's will;
(c) the father's executor's executor;
(d) the father's father's executor;
(e) the father's father's executor's executor:
Provided that he is a Muslim, an adult, sane, and worthy of trust.
(2) The father shall have, at all times, the amplest power to
make by will such dispositions as he thinks best relative to the
guardianship of his minor children and the protection of their
interests, provided that he is in full possession of his senses.
(3) Subsection (1) shall not apply where the terms and conditions
of the instrument vesting the property in the minor expressly exclude
the persons mentioned therein from exercising guardianship over
the property, and in that case the Court shall appoint a guardian
of the property of the minor.
(4) A person shall, for the purposes of guardianship of person
and property, be deemed to be a minor unless he or she has
completed the age of eighteen years.
Power over immovable and movable property
89. (1) As regards immovable property, a legal guardian shall
have no power to sell, except in the following cases, that is to
say--
(a) where at least double the price of the property may be
obtained by him from a stranger by the sale of the property;
(b) where the minor has no other means of livelihood, and
the sale is absolutely necessary for his maintenance, and
the minor has no other property;
(c) where the property is required to be sold for the purpose
of paying off the debts of the testator, which cannot
otherwise be liquidated;
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(d) where there are some general provisions in the will of the
testator that cannot be carried into effect without the sale
of the property;
(e) where the income accruing from the estate is insufficient
to defray the expenditure incurred in its management and
the payment of the land revenue;
(f) where the property is in imminent danger of being destroyed
or lost by decay;
(g) where the property is in the hands of a usurper, and the
guardian has reason to fear that there is no chance of fair
restitution; or
(h) in any other case where it is absolutely necessary to sell
the property on other grounds permitted by Hukum Syarak
and the sale is to the manifest or evident advantage of
the minor.
(2) As regards movable property, a legal guardian shall have
power to sell or pledge the goods and chattels of the minor, if he
is in need of imperative necessities, such as food, clothing, and
nursing; and where the movable property of a minor is sold bona
fide for an adequate consideration, with the object of investing the
proceeds safely and for an increased income, its sale shall be held
valid.
Appointment of guardians by the Court
90. (1) In the absence of the legal guardians, the duty of appoint-
ing a guardian for the protection and preservation of the minor's
property shall be upon the Court, and in making an appointment
the Court shall be guided chiefly by considerations of the minor's
welfare.
(2) In considering what will be for the welfare of the minor, the
Court shall have regard to the age and sex of the minor, the
character and the capacity of the proposed guardian and his nearness
of relationship to the minor, the wishes, if any, of the deceased
parents, and any existing or previous relations of the proposed
guardian with the minor or his property, and where the minor is
old enough to form an intelligent preference, the Court may consider
that preference.
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Appointment of mother as testamentary guardian
91.  A mother, whether a Muslim or Kitabiyah, may be validly
appointed executrix of the father, and in that case she may exercise
her powers as a testamentary guardian or, in the absence of a legal
guardian, she may be appointed legal guardian by the Court, but
in the absence of such appointment she shall not deal with the
minor's property.
Joint guardian with mother
92.  Where the Court appoints the mother to be guardian, the
Court may also appoint some other person to be guardian of the
minor's person and property, or either of them, to act jointly with
the mother.
Variation of power of guardian of property
93.  The Court may, in appointing any guardian of a minor's
property, by order define, restrict, or extend the power and authority
of the guardian in relation thereto, to such extent as is necessary
for the welfare of the minor.
Removal of guardian
94.  The Court may at any time and from time to time remove
any guardian, whether a parent or otherwise and whether of the
person or the property of the minor and may appoint another
person to be guardian in his place.
Security to be given
95. (1) Where a person is appointed by the Court to be the guardian
of a minor's property he shall, unless the Court otherwise orders,
give security in such sum as may be appointed for the due per-
formance of his duties as guardian.
(2) Such security shall be given in the manner prescribed for
the time being in the case of receivers appointed by the Court; and
the guardian appointed shall render his accounts at such periods
as may be ordered, and shall pay in any balance certified to be due
from him into Court in the manner prescribed in the case of
receivers.
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Limitation of powers of guardian appointed by Court
96. (1) A guardian of the property of a minor appointed by the
Court shall not, without the leave of the Court--
(a) sell, charge, mortgage, exchange, or otherwise part with
the possession of any movable or immovable property of
the minor; or
(b) lease any land belonging to the minor for a term exceeding
one year.
(2) Any disposal of a minor's property in contravention of this
section may be declared void and on such declaration the Court
may make such order as appears requisite for restoring to the
minor's estate the property disposed of.
(3) The Court shall not make any order under subsection (2)
unless it is necessary or advisable in the interests of the minor.
Guardian may not give discharge for capital property
97.  A guardian of the property of a minor appointed by the Court
shall not, unless in any case the Court otherwise orders, be em-
powered to give a good discharge for any legacy or other capital
moneys payable to or receivable by the minor.
Guardian may support minor out of income
98. (1) A guardian of the property of a minor appointed by the
Court may make reasonable provision out of the income of the
property for his maintenance and education, having regard to his
station in life; but no sum exceeding three hundred ringgit per
month may be so applied without the leave of the Court.
(2) Where the income of the minor's property in the hands of
the guardian is insufficient for such purpose, or money is required
for the minor's advancement, the Court may order the provision
for such purpose be made out of the capital of the minor's prop-
erty, and for such purpose may authorize the sale, charge, or
mortgage of any part of the minor's property and give such direc-
tions in regard thereto as may be necessary in the interests of the
minor.
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Special order in case of small estate
99. (1) If it appears that, having regard to the station in life of
a minor and to the value of his property and to all the circum-
stances of the case, it would be expedient that the capital property
of the minor be made available for his maintenance, education, or
advancement in such manner as to avoid the expense of making
application to the Court, the Court may, instead of appointing a
guardian of the property of the minor, order that all the property
of the minor, of whatsoever description, be placed in the hands of
a person to be appointed by the Court, with full power to deal with
and apply the property for the purpose aforesaid in his sole and
uncontrolled discretion; and in that case the receipt of the person
appointed shall be a good discharge to any person making any
payment or transfer of any property to him on behalf of the minor.
(2) Any persons appointed under subsection (1) may be ordered
by the Court to render an account of his dealings with the minor's
estate.
(3) The Court may for any sufficient reason discharge any order,
or revoke any appointment, made under subsection (1), and may
appoint another person with the same power or such greater or
lesser power as may appear advisable, or may appoint a guardian
of the minor's property.
Application for opinion, etc.
100.  Any guardian may apply to the Court for its opinion, ad-
vice, or discretion on any question respecting the management or
administration of the minor's property.
Prohibition order by Court
101. (1) Notwithstanding the provisions of section 89, the Court
may, where it considers it necessary so to do, make an order
prohibiting the father of a minor or the father's father or their
respective executors or their respective executors' executors from--
(a) selling, charging, mortgaging, exchanging, or otherwise
parting with the possession of any movable or immov-
able property of the minor; or
(b) leasing any land belonging to the minor for a term ex-
ceeding one year,
without the prior leave of the Court.
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(2) Any disposal of a minor's property in contravention of the
order may be declared void, and on such declaration the Court may
make such order as appears requisite for restoring to the minor's
estate the property disposed of.
(3) The Court shall not make any order under subsection (2)
unless it is necessary or advisable in the interests of the minor.
Guardian of orphan
102.  Where the father and the grandfather of a minor have died
without appointing a testamentary guardian, any penghulu, police
officer not below the rank of Sergeant, any person having the
custody of the minor, or any person with the powers of a Protector
under the *Child Act 2001 [Act 611], may cause the minor to be
taken before the Court and the Court may appoint a guardian of
the minor's person and property or either of them.
103.
(Deleted by Act A902).
Court to have regard to advice of welfare officers, etc.
104.  When considering any question relating to the custody or
maintenance of any child, the Court shall, whenever it is practicable,
take the advice of some person, whether or not a public officer,
who is trained or experienced in child welfare but shall not be
bound to follow the advice.
Power of Court to restrain taking of child out of Malaysia
105. (1) The Court may on application of the father or mother of
a child--
(a) where any matrimonial proceeding is pending; or
(b) where, under any agreement or order of Court, one parent
has custody of the child to the exclusion of the other,
issue an injunction restraining the other parent from taking the
child out of Malaysia or may give leave for the child to be taken
out of Malaysia either unconditionally or subject to such condi-
tions or such undertaking as the Court thinks fit.
*NOTE--This Act has repealed the Child Protection Act 1991 [Act 468] (see section 130 of Act 611), which
repealed the Children and Young Persons Act 1947 [Act 232]--see subsection 50(2) of Act 468.
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(2) The Court may, on the application of any interested person,
issue an injunction restraining any person, other than a person
having custody of the child, from taking a child out of Malaysia.
(3) Failure to comply with an order made under this section
shall be punishable as a contempt of Court.
Other Reliefs
Power of Court to set aside and prevent dispositions intended
to defeat claims to maintenance
106. (1) Where--
(a) any matrimonial proceeding is pending; or
(b) an order has been made under section 56, 59 or 73 and
has not been revoked; or
(c) maintenance is payable under any agreement to or for the
benefit of a wife or former wife or child,
the Court shall have power on application--
(i) if it is satisfied that any disposition of property has been
made by the husband or former husband or parent of the
person by or on whose behalf the application is made,
within the preceding three years, with the object on the
part of the person making the disposition of reducing his
or her means to pay maintenance or his means to pay
mut'ah or of depriving his wife of any rights in relation
to the property, subject to subsection (2), to require the
person making the disposition to revoke the same; and
(ii) if it is satisfied that any disposition of property is in-
tended to be made with any such object, to grant an
injunction preventing the disposition.
(2) For the purposes of this section--
"disposition" includes a sale, gift, lease, mortgage, or any other
transaction whereby ownership or possession of the property is
transferred or encumbered but does not include a disposition made
for money or money's worth to or in favour of a person acting in
good faith and in ignorance of the object with which the disposition
is made;
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"property" means property of any nature, movable or immov-
able, and includes money.
(3) Failure to comply with an order made under this section
shall be punishable as a contempt of Court.
Injunction against molestation
107. (1) The Court shall have power during the pendency of any
matrimonial proceedings or on or after the grant of an order of
divorce, fasakh, or annulment, to order any person to refrain from
forcing his or her society on his or her spouse or former spouse
and from other acts of molestation.
(2) Failure to comply with an order made under this section
shall be punishable as a contempt of Court.
PART VIII
MISCELLANEOUS
Recognition of Muslim marriages contracted outside the Fed-
eral Territory
108. (1) A Muslim marriage contracted outside the Federal Ter-
ritory other than a marriage solemnized in a Malaysian Embassy,
High Commission, or Consulate under section 24 shall be recog-
nized as valid for all purposes of this Act if--
(a) it was contracted in a form required or permitted by the
law of the place where it was contracted;
(b) each of the parties had, at the time of the marriage,
capacity to marry under the law of the place of his or her
residence; and
(c) where either of the parties is a resident of the Federal
Territory, both parties had capacity to marry according
to this Act.
(2) (Deleted by Act A902).
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Recognition of marriages contracted in Embassies, etc., in the
Federal Territory
109. (1) A Muslim marriage of persons who are not Malaysian
citizens contracted in any foreign Embassy, High Commission, or
Consulate in the Federal Territory shall be recognized as valid for
all purposes of this Act if--
(a) it was contracted in a form required or permitted by the
law of the country whose Embassy, High Commission,
or Consulate it is, or in a form permitted under this Act;
(b) each of the parties had, at the time of the marriage,
capacity to marry under the law of the place of his or her
residence; and
(c) where either of the parties is a resident of the Federal
Territory, both parties had capacity to marry according
to this Act.
(2) (Deleted by Act A902).
Legitimacy
Ascription of paternity
110.  Where a child is born to a woman who is married to a man
more than six qamariah months from the date of the marriage or
within four qamariah years after dissolution of the marriage either
by the death of the man or by divorce, the woman not having
remarried, the nasab or paternity of the child is established in the
man, but the man may, by way of li'an or imprecation, disavow
or disclaim the child before the Court.
Birth more than four years after dissolution of marriage
111.  Where the child is born more than four qamariah years after
the dissolution of the marriage either by the death of the man or
by divorce, the paternity of the child shall not be established in
the man unless he or any of his heirs asserts that the child is his
issue.
Birth after declaration of completion of `iddah
112.  Where a woman, not having remarried, makes a declaration
that the period of `iddah has been completed, whether the period
is for death or divorce, and she is subsequently delivered of a
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child, the paternity of the child shall not be ascribed to her hus-
band unless the child was born less than four qamariah years from
the date of the dissolution of the marriage either by the death of
the husband or by divorce.
Syubhah intercourse
113.  Where a man has syubhah sexual intercourse with a woman,
and she is subsequently delivered of a child between the period
of six qamariah months to four qamariah years after the intercourse,
the paternity of the child shall be ascribed to the man.
Conditions for valid acknowledgment
114.  Where a man acknowledges another, either expressly or
impliedly, as his lawful child, the paternity of the child shall be
established in the man, if the following conditions are fulfilled,
that is to say:
(a) the paternity of the child is not established in any one
else;
(b) the ages of the man and the child are such that filial
relationship is possible between them;
(c) where the child is of discreet age, the child has acquiesced
in the acknowledgment;
(d) the man and the mother of the child could have been
lawfully joined in marriage at the time of conception;
(e) the acknowledgment is not merely that he or she is his
son, but that the child is his legitimate son;
(f) the man is competent to make a contract;
(g) the acknowledgment is with the distinct intention of
conferring the status of legitimacy;
(h) the acknowledgement is definite and the child is
acknowledged to be the child of his body.
Presumption from acknowledgment rebuttable
115.  The presumption of paternity arising from acknowledgment
may only be rebutted by--
(a) disclaimer on the part of the person acknowledged;
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(b) proof of such proximity of age, or seniority of the
acknowledgee, as would render the alleged relationship
physically impossible;
(c) proof that the acknowledgee is in fact the child of some
other person; or
(d)