Limitation
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LAWS OF MALAYSIA
REPRINT
Act 254
LIMITATION ACT 1953
Incorporating all amendments up to 1 January 2006
PUBLISHED BY
THE COMMISSIONER OF LAW REVISION, MALAYSIA
UNDER THE AUTHORITY OF THE REVISION OF LAWS ACT 1968
IN COLLABORATION WITH
PERCETAKAN NASIONAL MALAYSIA BHD
2006
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LIMITATION ACT 1953
First enacted
... ... ... ... ... ...
1953 (F.M. Ordinance
No. 4 of 1953)
Revised
... ... ... ... ... ... ...
1981 (Act 254 w.e.f
19 November 1981)
PREVIOUS REPRINT
First Reprint
...
...
...
...
...
2000
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LAWS OF MALAYSIA
Act 254
LIMITATION ACT 1953
ARRANGEMENT OF SECTIONS
PART I
Section
1.
Short title and application
2.
Interpretation
3.
Saving for other limitation enactments
4.
Limitation not to operate as a bar unless specially pleaded
PART II
5.
Part II to be subject to provisions of Part III
ACTIONS OF CONTRACT AND TORT AND
CERTAIN OTHER ACTIONS
6.
Limitation of actions of contract and tort and certain other actions
7.
Limitation in case of successive conversions and extinction of title of
owner of converted goods
8.
Limitation of certain actions in respect of revenue matters
ACTIONS TO RECOVER LAND AND RENT
9.
Limitation of actions to recover land
10.
Accrual of right of claim in case of present interests in land
11.
Accrual of right of action in case of future interests in land
12.
Provisions in case of settled land and land held on trust
13.
Accrual of right of action in certain tenancies
14.
Accrual of right of action in case of forfeiture or breach of condition
15.
Right of action not to accrue or continue unless there is adverse possession
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Section
16.
Limitation of redemption actions
17.
No right of action to be preserved by formal entry or continual claim
18.
Right of person out of possession extinguished
19.
Administrator's claim to date back to death
20.
Limitation of actions to recover rent
ACTIONS TO RECOVER MONEY SECURED BY
MORTGAGE OR CHARGE OR TO RECOVER PROCEEDS
OF THE SALE OF LAND
21.
Limitation of actions to recover money secured by a mortgage or
charge or to recover proceeds of the sale of land
ACTIONS IN RESPECT OF TRUST PROPERTY OR THE
PERSONAL ESTATE OF DECEASED PERSONS
22.
Limitation of actions in respect of trust property
23.
Limitation of actions claiming personal estate of a deceased person
PART III
24.
Extension of limitation period in case of disability
25.
Extension of limitation period where debtor administers estate of his
creditor
26.
Fresh accrual of action on acknowledgment or part payment
27.
Formal provisions as to acknowledgments and part payments
28.
Effect of acknowledgment or part payment on persons other than the
maker or recipient
29.
Postponement of limitation period in case of fraud or mistake
PART IV
30.
Application of Act and other limitation enactments to arbitrations
31.
Provisions as to set-off or counterclaim
32.
Acquiescence
33.
Application to the Government
34.
Provisions as to actions already barred and pending actions
35.
Repeal
36.
(Omitted)
SCHEDULE
Limitation
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LAWS OF MALAYSIA
Act 254
LIMITATION ACT 1953
An Act to provide for the limitation of actions and arbitrations.
[19 February 1953]
PART I
Short title and application
1. (1) This Act may be cited as the Limitation Act 1953.
(2) This Act shall apply to Peninsular Malaysia only.
Interpretation
2. (1) In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires--
"action" includes a suit or any other proceeding in a court of
law;
"land" includes things attached to the earth or permanently fastened
to anything attached to the earth, rent charges and any legal or
equitable estate or interest in land including an interest in the
proceeds of sale of land held upon trust for sale but save as
aforesaid does not include any right of way, easement, servitude,
profit over or in respect of land, or right in the nature of an
easement, servitude or profit over or in respect of land, or any
other incorporeal hereditament;
"personal estate" and "personal property" do not include land
or chattels real;
"rent" includes a rent charge and a rent service;
"rent charge" means any annuity or periodical sum of money
charged upon or payable out of land except a rent service or
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interest on the mortgage or charge of land or a rent payable to the
State in respect of the grant or lease or alienation of State land;
"trust" and "trustee" have the same meanings respectively as in
the Trustee Act 1949 [Act 208];
"Peninsular Malaysia" has the meaning assigned thereto in section
3 of the Interpretation Acts 1948 and 1967 [Act 388], and includes
the Federal Territory.
(2) For the purposes of this Act, a person shall be deemed to
be under a disability while he is an infant or of unsound mind.
(3) A person shall be deemed to claim through another person,
if he became entitled by, through, under, or by the act of that other
person to the right claimed:
Provided that a person becoming entitled to any estate or interest
by virtue of a special power of appointment shall not be deemed
to claim through the appointor.
(4) References in this Act to a right of action to recover land
shall include references to a right to enter into possession of the
land or in the case of rent charges any right to distrain for arrears
of rent and references to the bringing of such an action shall
include references to the making of such an entry or distraint.
(5) References in this Act to the possession of land shall, in the
case of rent charges, be construed as references to the receipt of
the rent, and references to the date of dispossession or discontinuance
of possession of land shall, in the case of rent charges, be construed
as references to the date of the last receipt of rent.
(6) In Part III of this Act references to a right of action shall
include references to a cause of action and to a right to receive
money secured by a mortgage or charge on any property or to
recover proceeds of the sale of land, and to a right to receive a
share or interest in the personal estate of a deceased person and
references to the date of the accrual of a right of action shall--
(a) in the case of an action for an account, be construed as
references to the date on which the matter arose in respect
of which an account is claimed;
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(b) in the case of an action upon a judgment, be construed
as references to the date on which the judgment became
enforceable;
(c) in the case of an action to recover arrears of rent or
interest, or damages in respect thereof, be construed as
references to the date on which the rent or interest became
due.
Saving for other limitation enactments
3.  This Act shall not apply to any action or arbitration for which
a period of limitation is prescribed by any other written law or to
any action or arbitration to which the Government or the Government
of any State is a party and for which if it were between subjects
a period of limitation would have been prescribed by any other
written law.
Limitation not to operate as a bar unless specially pleaded
4.  Nothing in this Act shall operate as a bar to an action unless
this Act has been expressly pleaded as a defence thereto in any
case where under any written law relating to civil procedure for
the time being in force such a defence is required to be so pleaded.
PART II
Part II to be subject to provisions of Part III
5.
This Part shall have effect subject to Part III of this Act.
ACTIONS OF CONTRACT AND TORT AND
CERTAIN OTHER ACTIONS
Limitation of actions of contract and tort and certain other
actions
6. (1) Save as hereinafter provided the following actions shall not
be brought after the expiration of six years from the date on which
the cause of action accrued, that is to say--
(a) actions founded on a contract or on tort;
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(b) actions to enforce a recognisance;
(c) actions to enforce an award;
(d) actions to recover any sum recoverable by virtue of any
written law other than a penalty or forfeiture or of a sum
by way of penalty or forfeiture.
(2) An action for an account shall not be brought in respect of
any matter which arose more than six years before the commencement
of the action.
(3) An action upon any judgment shall not be brought after the
expiration of twelve years from the date on which the judgment
became enforceable and no arrears of interest in respect of any
judgment debt shall be recovered after the expiration of six years
from the date on which the interest became due.
(4) An action to recover any penalty or forfeiture or sum by
way of penalty or forfeiture recoverable by virtue of any written
law shall not be brought after the expiration of one year from the
date on which the cause of action accrued:
Provided that for the purpose of this subsection the expression
"penalty" shall not include a fine to which a person is liable on
conviction for a criminal offence.
(5) Nothing in this section shall apply to--
(a) any cause of action within the Admiralty jurisdiction of
the High Court which is enforceable in rem other than
an action to recover the wages of seamen, or
(b) any action to recover money secured by any mortgage of
or charge on land or personal property.
(6) Subject to sections 22 and 32 of this Act the provisions of
this section shall apply (if necessary by analogy) to all claims for
specific performance of a contract or for an injunction or for other
equitable relief whether the same be founded upon any contract
or tort or upon any trust or other ground in equity.
Limitation
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Limitation in case of successive conversions and extinction of
title of owner of converted goods
7. (1) Where any cause of action in respect of the conversion or
wrongful detention of a chattel has accrued to any person and
before he recovers possession of the chattel, a further conversion
or wrongful detention takes place, no action shall be brought in
respect of the further conversion or detention after the expiration
of six years from the accrual of the cause of action in respect of
the original conversion or detention.
(2) Where any such cause of action has accrued to any person
and the period prescribed for bringing that action and for bringing
any action in respect of such a further conversion or wrongful
detention as aforesaid has expired and he has not during that
period recovered possession of the chattel the title of that person
to the chattel shall be extinguished.
Limitation of certain actions in respect of revenue matters
8.
An action--
(a) to set aside a sale in pursuance of the order of a Collector
or other officer of revenue;
(b) to set aside a sale for arrears of Government, or State
revenue or for any demand recoverable as such arrears;
(c) to set aside any attachment, lease or transfer of immovable
p r o p e r t y by the revenue authorities for arrears of
Government, or State revenue;
(d) against the Government or the Government of any State
to recover money paid under protest in satisfaction of a
claim made by the revenue authorities on account of
arrears of revenue or on account of demands recoverable
as such arrears,
shall not be brought after the expiration of one year from the date
on which the sale is confirmed or would otherwise have become
final or conclusive had no such action been brought or when the
attachment ceased or transfer or payment was made, as the case
may be.
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ACTIONS TO RECOVER LAND AND RENT
Limitation of actions to recover land
9. (1) No action shall be brought by any person to recover any
land after the expiration of twelve years from the date on which
the right of action accrued to him, or if it first accrued to some
person through whom he claims, to that person.
(2) Nothing in this section or in subsection 11(2) of this Act
shall be deemed to affect the Government Proceedings Act 1956
[Act 359], or the National Land Code (Penang and Malacca Titles)
Act 1963 [Act 518], or to apply--
(a) to the Ruler of any State, in respect of State land or land
reserved for a public purpose situate in such State; or
(b) to any person registered under or by virtue of the National
Land Code 1965 [Act 56 of 1965], or the National Land
Code (Penang and Malacca Titles) Act 1963, as the
proprietor of the land sought to be recovered, or to any
person claiming through a person so registered, except
to the extent that such Code or Act so provides or permits.
Accrual of right of claim in case of present interests in land
10. (1) Where the person bringing an action to recover land or
some person through whom he claims has been in possession
thereof and has, whilst entitled thereto, been dispossessed or
discontinued his possession, the right of action shall be deemed
to have accrued on the date of the dispossession or discontinuance.
(2) Where any person brings an action to recover any land of
a deceased person whether under a will or intestacy and the deceased
person was on the date of his death in possession of the land and
was the last person entitled to the land to be in possession thereof
the cause of action shall be deemed to have accrued on the date
of his death.
(3) Where any person brings an action to recover land, being
an estate or interest in possession assured otherwise than by will
to him, or to some person through whom he claims, by a person
who, at the date when the assurance took effect, was in possession
of the land, or in the case of a rent charge created by the assurance,
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in possession of the land charged, and no person has been in
possession of the land by virtue of the assurance the right of action
shall be deemed to have accrued on the date when the assurance
took effect.
(4) A right of action to recover land by virtue of a forfeiture
or breach of condition shall be deemed to have accrued on the date
on which the forfeiture was incurred or the condition broken:
Provided that, if such a right has accrued to a person entitled
to an estate or interest in reversion or remainder and the land was
not recovered by virtue thereof, the right of action to recover the
land shall not be deemed to have accrued to that person until his
estate or interest fell into possession, as if no such forfeiture or
breach of condition had occurred.
Accrual of right of action in case of future interests in land
11. (1) Subject as hereafter in this section provided, the right of
action to recover any land shall, in a case where the estate or
interest claimed was an estate or interest in reversion or remainder
or any other future estate or interest and no person has taken
possession of the land by virtue of the estate or interest claimed,
be deemed to have accrued on the date on which the estate or
interest fell into possession by the determination of the preceding
estate or interest.
(2) If the person entitled to the preceding estate or interest, not
being a term of years absolute, was not in possession of the land
on the date of the determination thereof, no action shall be brought
by the person entitled to the succeeding estate or interest after the
expiration of twelve years from the date on which the right of
action accrued to the person entitled to the preceding estate or
interest, or six years from the date on which the right of action
accrued to the person entitled to the succeeding estate or interest,
whichever period last expires.
(3) No person shall bring an action to recover any estate or
interest in land under an assurance taking effect after the right of
action to recover the land had accrued to the person by whom the
assurance was made or some person through whom he claimed or
some person entitled to a preceding estate or interest, unless the
action is brought within the period during which the person by
whom the assurance was made could have brought such an action.
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(4) Where any person is entitled to any estate or interest in land
in possession and, while so entitled, is also entitled to any future
estate or interest in that land, and his right to recover the estate
or interest in possession is barred under this Act, no action shall
be brought by that person, or by any person claiming through him,
in respect of the future estate or interest, unless in the meantime
possession of the land has been recovered by a person entitled to
an intermediate estate or interest.
Provisions in case of settled land and land held on trust
12. (1) Subject to subsection 22(1) of this Act, the provisions of
this Act shall apply to equitable interests in land, including interests
in the proceeds of the sale of land held upon trust for sale, in like
manner as they apply to legal estates, and accordingly a right of
action to recover the land shall, for the purposes of this Act but
not otherwise, be deemed to accrue to a person entitled in possession
to such an equitable interest in the like manner and circumstances
and on the same date as it would accrue if his interest were a legal
estate in the land.
(2) Where any land is held upon trust including a trust for sale,
and the period prescribed by this Act (if any) has expired for the
bringing of an action to recover the land by the trustees, the estate
of the trustees shall not be extinguished if and so long as the right
of action to recover the land of any person entitled to a beneficial
interest in the land or in the proceeds of sale either has not accrued
or has not been barred by this Act, but if and when every such right
of action has been so barred, the estate of the trustees shall be
extinguished.
(3) Where any land is held upon trust, including a trust for sale,
an action to recover the land may be brought by the trustees on
behalf of any person entitled to a beneficial interest in possession
in the land or in the proceeds of sale whose right of action has not
been barred by this Act, notwithstanding that the right of action
of the trustees would apart from this provision have been barred
by this Act.
(4) Where any land held on trust for sale is in the possession
of a person entitled to a beneficial interest in the land or in the
proceeds of sale, not being a person solely and absolutely entitled
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thereto, no right of action to recover the land shall be deemed for
the purposes of this Act to accrue during such possession to any
person in whom the land is vested as trustee, or to any other person
entitled to a beneficial interest in the land or the proceeds of sale.
Accrual of right of action in certain tenancies
13. (1) A tenancy at will shall, for the purposes of this Act, be
deemed to be determined at the expiration of a period of one year
from the commencement thereof, unless it has previously been
determined, and accordingly the right of action of the person
entitled to the land subject to the tenancy shall be deemed to have
accrued on the date of such determination.
(2) A tenancy from year to year or other period, without a lease
in writing, shall, for the purposes of this Act, be deemed to be
determined at the expiration of the first year or other period, and
accordingly the right of action of the person entitled to the land
subject to the tenancy shall be deemed to have accrued at the date
of such determination.
(3) Where any rent has subsequently to the determination of
any tenancy been received in respect of the tenancy, the right of
action shall be deemed to have accrued on the date of the last
receipt of rent.
(4) Where any person is in possession of land by virtue of a
lease in writing by which a rent of not less than ten ringgit is
reserved, and the rent is received by some person wrongfully
claiming to be entitled to the land in reversion immediately expectant
on the determination of the lease, and no rent is subsequently
received by the person rightfully so entitled, the right of action of
the last-named person to recover the land shall be deemed to have
accrued at the date when the rent was first received by the person
wrongfully claiming as aforesaid and not at the date of the
determination of the lease.
(5) This section shall not apply to any tenancy at will or lease
granted by a Ruler or Yang di-Pertua Negeri or by the Government
or the Government of any State.
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Accrual of right of action in case of forfeiture or breach of
condition
14.  A right of action to recover land by virtue of a forfeiture or
breach of condition shall be deemed to have accrued on the date
on which the forfeiture was incurred or the condition broken:
Provided that, if such a right has accrued to a person entitled
to an estate or interest in reversion or remainder and the land was
not recovered by virtue thereof, the right of action to recover the
land shall not be deemed to have accrued to that person until his
estate or interest fell into possession, as if no such forfeiture or
breach of condition had occurred.
Right of action not to accrue or continue unless there is adverse
possession
15. (1) No right of action to recover land shall be deemed to
accrue unless the land is in the possession of some person in whose
favour the period of limitation can run (hereafter in this section
referred to as "adverse possession") and where under the foregoing
provisions of this Act any such right of action is deemed to accrue
on a certain date and no person is in adverse possession on that
date, the right of action shall not be deemed to accrue unless and
until adverse possession is taken of the land.
(2) Where a right of action to recover land has accrued and
thereafter, before the right is barred, the land ceases to be in
adverse possession, the right of action shall no longer be deemed
to have accrued and no fresh right of action shall be deemed to
accrue unless and until the land is again taken into adverse possession.
(3) For the purposes of this section--
(a) possession of any land subject to a rent charge by a
person (other than the person entitled to the rent charge)
who does not pay the rent shall be deemed to be adverse
possession of the rent charge; and
(b) receipt of rent under a lease by a person wrongfully
claiming, in accordance with subsection 13(4) of this
Act, the land in reversion shall be deemed to be adverse
possession of the land.
Limitation
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Limitation of redemption actions
16.  When a mortgagee of land has been in possession of any of
the mortgaged land for a period of twelve years, no action to
redeem the land of which the mortgagee has been so in possession
shall thereafter be brought by the mortgagor or any person claiming
through him:
Provided that where a mortgagee is by virtue of the mortgage
in possession of any mortgaged land and either receives any sum
in respect of the principal or interest of the mortgage debt or
acknowledges in accordance with section 27 of this Act the title
of the mortgagor, or his equity of redemption, an action to redeem
the land in his possession may be brought at any time before the
expiration of twelve years from the date of the payment or
acknowledgment.
No right of action to be preserved by formal entry or continual
claim
17.  For the purposes of this Act, no person shall be deemed to
have been in possession of any land by reason only of having made
a formal entry thereon, and no continual or other claim upon or
near any land shall preserve any right of action to recover the land.
Right of person out of possession extinguished
18.  At the determination of the period limited by this Act to any
person for bringing an action to recover land the right and title of
such person to the land for the recovery whereof such action might
have been brought within such period, shall be extinguished.
Administrator's claim to date back to death
19.  For the purposes of this Act relating to actions for the recovery
of land an administrator of the estate of a deceased person shall
be deemed to claim as if there had been no interval of time between
the death of the deceased person and the grant of the letters of
administration.
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Limitation of actions to recover rent
20.  No action shall be brought, or distress made, to recover
arrears of rent, or damages in respect thereof, after the expiration
of six years from the date on which the arrears became due.
ACTIONS TO RECOVER MONEY SECURED BY
MORTGAGE OR CHARGE OR TO RECOVER
PROCEEDS OF THE SALE OF LAND
Limitation of actions to recover money secured by a mortgage
or charge or to recover proceeds of the sale of land
21. (1) No action shall be brought to recover any principal sum
of money secured by a mortgage or other charge on land or personal
property or to enforce such mortgage or charge, or to recover
proceeds of the sale of land or personal property after the expiration
of twelve years from the date when the right to receive the money
accrued.
(2) No foreclosure action in respect of mortgaged personal property
shall be brought after the expiration of twelve years from the date
on which the right to foreclose accrued:
Provided that if, after that date the mortgagee was in possession
of the mortgaged property, the right to foreclose on the property
which was in his possession shall not, for the purposes of this
subsection, be deemed to have accrued until the date on which his
possession discontinued.
(3) The right to receive any principal sum of money secured by
a mortgage or other charge and the right to foreclose on the property
subject to the mortgage or charge shall not be deemed to accrue
so long as that property comprises any future interests or any life
insurance policy which has not matured or been determined.
(4) Nothing in the preceding subsections of this section shall
apply to a foreclosure action in respect of mortgaged land but the
provisions of this Act relating to actions to recover land shall
apply to such an action.
(5) No action to recover arrears of interest payable in respect
of any sum of money secured by a mortgage or other charge or
payable in respect of proceeds of the sale of land, or to recover
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damages in respect of such arrears shall be brought after the expiration
of six years from the date on which the interest became due:
Provided that--
(a) where a prior mortgagee or other incumbrancer has been
in possession of the property mortgaged or charged, and
an action is brought within one year of the discontinuance
of such possession by the subsequent incumbrancer, he
may recover by that action all the arrears of interest
which fell due during the period of possession by the
p r i o r incumbrancer or damages in respect thereof,
notwithstanding that the period exceeded six years;
(b) where the property subject to the mortgage or charge
comprises any future interest or life insurance policy and
it is a term of the mortgage or charge that arrears of
interest shall be treated as part of the principal sum of
money secured by the mortgage or charge, interest shall
not be deemed to become due before the right to receive
the principal sum of money has accrued or is deemed to
have accrued.
(6) This section shall not apply to any mortgage or charge of
a ship.
ACTIONS IN RESPECT OF TRUST PROPERTY OR
THE PERSONAL ESTATE OF DECEASED PERSONS
Limitation of actions in respect of trust property
22. (1) No period of limitation prescribed by this Act shall apply
to an action by a beneficiary under a trust, being an action--
(a) in respect of any fraud or fraudulent breach of trust to
which the trustee was a party or privy; or
(b) to recover from the trustee trust property or the proceeds
thereof in the possession of the trustee, or previously
received by the trustee and converted to his use.
(2) Subject as aforesaid, an action by a beneficiary to recover
trust property or in respect of any breach of trust, not being an
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action for which a period of limitation is prescribed by any other
provision of this Act, shall not be brought after the expiration of
six years from the date on which the right of action accrued:
Provided that the right of action shall not be deemed to have
accrued to any beneficiary entitled to a future interest in the trust
property, until the interest fell into possession.
(3) No beneficiary as against whom there would be a good
defence under this Act shall derive any greater or other benefit
from a judgment or order obtained by any other beneficiary than
he could have obtained if he had brought the action and this Act
had been pleaded in defence.
Limitation of actions claiming personal estate of a deceased
person
23.  Subject to subsection 22(1) of this Act, no action in respect
of any claim to the personal estate of a deceased person or to any
share or interest in such estate, whether under a will or on intestacy,
shall be brought after the expiration of twelve years from the date
when the right to receive the share or interest accrued, and no
action to recover arrears of interest in respect of any legacy, or
damages in respect of such arrears, shall be brought after the
expiration of six years from the date on which the interest became
due.
PART III
Extension of limitation period in case of disability
24. (1) If on the date when any right of action accrued for which
a period of limitation is prescribed by this Act, the person to whom
it accrued was under a disability, the action may be brought at any
time before the expiration of six years, or in the case of actions
to which subsection 6(4) or section 8 of this Act applies, one year
from the date when such person ceased to be under a disability or
died, whichever event first occurred, notwithstanding that the period
of limitation had expired:
Provided that in any case to which section 29 of this Act apply,
this subsection shall apply as if the date from which the period of
limitation begins to run were substituted for the date when the
right of action accrued.
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(2) Where any such person as is referred to in subsection (1)
of this section was on such date under two disabilities or where
before the disability which he was under on such date had ceased
he was affected by another disability he shall be deemed for the
purposes of this section to have continued under a disability until
both such disabilities have ceased.
(3) When one of several joint-creditors or claimants is under
any such disability, and when a discharge can be given without
the concurrence of such person, time will run against them all.
Where no such discharge can be given, time will not run as against
any of them until all such persons cease to be under a disability
or until one of them becomes capable of giving such discharge
without the concurrence of the others whichever shall first occur.
(4) The foregoing provisions of this section shall take effect
subject to the following provisos:
(a) nothing in such provisions shall affect any case where
the right of action first accrued to some person not under
a disability through whom the person under a disability
claims;
(b) when a right of action which has accrued to a person
under a disability accrues, on the death of that person
while still under a disability, to another person under a
disability, no further extension of time shall be allowed
by reason of the disability of the second person;
(c) no action to recover land or money charged on land for
which a period of limitation is prescribed under this Act
shall be brought by virtue of the provisions of this section
by any person after the expiration of thirty years from the
date on which the right of action accrued to that person
or some person through whom he claims;
(d) nothing in such provisions shall apply to any action to
recover a penalty or forfeiture, or sum by way thereof,
by virtue of any written law, except where the action is
brought by an aggrieved party.
Extension of limitation period where debtor administers estate
of his creditor
25. Where letters of administration to the estate of a creditor have
been granted to his debtor, the running of the time prescribed for
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a n action to recover the debt shall be suspended while the
administration continues.
Fresh accrual of action on acknowledgment or part payment
26. (1) Where there has accrued any right of action to recover
land or to enforce a mortgage or charge in respect of land or
personal property, and--
(a) the person in possession of the land or personal property
acknowledges the title of the person to whom the right
of action has accrued; or
(b) in the case of any such action by a mortgagee or chargee
the person in possession as aforesaid or the person liable
for the debt secured by the mortgage or charge makes
any payment in respect thereof, whether principal or interest,
the right shall be deemed to have accrued on and not before the
date of the acknowledgment or last payment.
(2) Where any right of action has accrued to recover any debt
or other liquidated pecuniary claim, or any claim to the personal
estate of a deceased person or to any share or interest therein, and
the person liable or accountable therefor acknowledges the claim
or makes any payment in respect thereof, the right shall be deemed
to have accrued on and not before the date of the acknowledgment
or the last payment:
Provided that a payment of a part of the rent or interest due at
any time shall not extend the period for claiming the remainder
of the rent or interest then due, but any payment of interest shall
have effect, for the purposes of this subsection only, as if it were
a payment in respect of the principal debt.
Formal provisions as to acknowledgments and part payments
27. (1) Every such acknowledgment as is referred to in section
26 or in the proviso to section 16 of this Act shall be in writing
and signed by the person making the acknowledgment.
(2) Any such acknowledgment or payment as is referred to in
section 26 or the proviso to section 16 of this Act may be made
by the agent of the person by whom it is required to be made under
Limitation
21
that section, and shall be made to the person, or to an agent of the
person, whose title or claim is being acknowledged or, as the case
may be, in respect of whose claim the payment is being made.
Effect of acknowledgment or part payment on persons other
than the maker or recipient
28. (1) For the purposes of this Act an acknowledgment of the
title to any land, or mortgaged or charged property by any person
in possession thereof shall bind all other persons in possession
during the ensuing period of limitation.
(2) A payment in respect of a debt secured by a mortgage or
charge by the mortgagor or any person in possession of the mortgaged
or charged land or personal property shall, so far as any right of
the mortgagee or chargee to foreclose or otherwise to recover the
property is concerned, bind all other persons in possession of the
mortgaged property during the ensuing period of limitation.
(3) Where there are two or more mortgagors of land or personal
property and the title or right to redemption of one of the mortgagors
is acknowledged as aforesaid, the acknowledgment shall be deemed
to have been made to all the mortgagors.
(4) An acknowledgment of any debt or other liquidated pecuniary
claim shall bind the acknowledgor and his successors but not any
other person:
Provided that an acknowledgment made after the expiration of
the period of limitation prescribed for the bringing of an action
to recover the debt or other claim shall not bind any successor on
whom the liability devolves on the determination of a preceding
estate or interest in property under a settlement taking effect before
the date of the acknowledgment.
(5) A payment made in respect of any debt or other liquidated
pecuniary claim shall bind all persons liable in respect thereof:
Provided that a payment made after the expiration of the period
of limitation prescribed for the bringing of an action to recover
the debt or other claim shall not bind any person other than the
person making the payment and his successors, and shall not bind
any successor on whom the liability devolves on the determination
of a preceding estate or interest in property under a settlement
taking effect before the date of the payment.
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(6) An acknowledgment by one of several personal representatives
of any claim to the personal estate of a deceased person, or to any
share or interest therein, or a payment by one of several personal
representatives in respect of any such claim shall bind the estate
of the deceased person.
(7) In this section the expression "successor" in relation to any
mortgagee or person liable in respect of any debt or claim, means
his personal representatives and any other person on whom the
rights under the mortgage or, as the case may be, the liability in
respect of the debt or claim devolve, whether on death or bankruptcy
or the disposition of property or the determination of a limited
estate or interest in settled property or otherwise.
Postponement of limitation period in case of fraud or mistake
29.  Where, in the case of any action for which a period of limitation
is prescribed by this Act, either--
(a) the action is based upon the fraud of the defendant or his
agent or of any person through whom he claims or his
agent; or
(b) the right of action is concealed by the fraud of any such
person as aforesaid; or
(c) the action is for relief from the consequences of a mistake,
the period of limitation shall not begin to run until the plaintiff
has discovered the fraud or the mistake, as the case may be, or
could with reasonable diligence have discovered it:
Provided that nothing in this section shall enable any action to
be brought to recover, or enforce any charge against, or set aside
any transaction affecting, any property which--
(i) in the case of fraud, has been purchased for valuable
consideration by a person who was not a party to the
fraud and did not at the time of the purchase know or
have reason to believe that any fraud had been committed;
or
(ii) in the case of mistake, has been purchased for valuable
consideration, subsequently to the transaction in which
the mistake was made, by a person who did not know or
have reason to believe that the mistake had been made.
Limitation
23
PART IV
Application of Act and other limitation enactments to
arbitrations
30. (1) This Act and any other written law relating to the limitation
of actions shall apply to arbitrations as they apply to actions.
(2) Notwithstanding any term in any submission to the effect
that no cause of action shall accrue in respect of any matter required
by the submission to be referred until an award is made under the
submission, the cause of action shall, for the purpose of this Act
and of any other such written law (whether in their application to
arbitrations or to other proceedings), be deemed to have accrued
in respect of any such matter at the time when it would have
accrued but for that term in the submission.
(3) For the purpose of this Act and of any such written law as
aforesaid, an arbitration shall be deemed to be commenced when
one party to the arbitration serves on the other party a notice
requiring him or them to appoint an arbitrator or to agree to the
appointment of an arbitrator, or, where the submission provides
that the reference shall be to a person named or designated in the
submission, requiring him or them to submit the dispute to the
person so named or designated.
(4) Any such notice as aforesaid may be served either--
(a) by delivering it to the person on whom it is to be served;
(b) by leaving it at the usual or last known place of abode
in Malaysia of that person; or
(c) by sending it by post in a registered letter addressed to
that person at his usual or last known place of abode in
Malaysia,
as well as in any other manner provided in the submission; and
where a notice is sent by post in a manner prescribed by paragraph
(c) of this subsection, service thereof shall, unless the contrary is
proved, be deemed to have been effected at the time at which the
letter would have been delivered in the ordinary course of post.
(5) Where the High Court orders that an award be set aside or
orders, after the commencement of an arbitration, that the arbitration
shall cease to have effect with respect to the dispute referred, the
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Court may further order that the period between the commencement
of the arbitration and the date of the order of the Court shall be
excluded in computing the time prescribed by this Act or any such
written law as aforesaid for the commencement of proceedings
(including arbitration) with respect to the dispute referred.
(6) This section shall apply to an arbitration under any written
law as well as to an arbitration pursuant to a submission, and
subsections (3) and (4) thereof shall have effect, in relation to an
arbitration under any written law, as if for the references to the
submission there were substituted references to such of the provisions
of the law or of any order, scheme, rules, regulations, or by-laws
made thereunder as relate to the arbitration.
(7) In this section the expressions "arbitration", "award" and
"submission" have the same meanings as in the Arbitration Act
1952 [Act 93].
Provisions as to set-off or counter-claim
31.  For the purposes of this Act, any claim by way of set-off or
counterclaim shall be deemed to be a separate action and to have
been commenced on the same date as the action in which the set-
off or counterclaim is pleaded.
Acquiescence
32.  Nothing in this Act shall affect any equitable jurisdiction to
refuse relief on the ground of acquiescence, laches or otherwise.
Application to the Government
33. (1) Save as in this Act otherwise provided and without prejudice
to section 3 of this Act, this Act shall apply to proceedings by or
against the Government in like manner as it applies to proceedings
between subjects and for the purposes of this Act a proceeding by
petition of right shall be deemed to be commenced on the date on
which the petition is presented:
Provided that this Act shall not apply to any proceedings by the
Government for the recovery of any tax, duty or interest thereon
or to any forfeiture proceeding under any written law in force in
Malaysia relating to customs duties or excise or to any proceedings
in respect of the forfeiture of a ship.
Limitation
25
(2) For the purposes of this section proceedings by or against
any Government Department or any officer of any Government as
such or any person acting on behalf of the Government shall be
deemed to be proceedings by or against the Government.
(3) In this section the expression "the Government" shall be
deemed to include the Government of any State.
Provisions as to actions already barred and pending actions
34.
Nothing in this Act shall--
(a) enable any action to be brought which was barred before
the commencement of this Act by any Ordinance or
Enactment repealed by this Act, except in so far as the
cause of action or right of action may be revived by an
acknowledgment or part payment made in accordance
with the provisions of this Act; or
(b) affect any action or arbitration commenced before the
commencement of this Act or the title to any property
which is the subject of any such action or arbitration.
Repeal
35.  The Ordinance and the Enactments specified in the Schedule
to this Act are repealed.
36.
(Omitted).
THE SCHEDULE
[Section 35]
S.S. Cap. 16
The Limitation Enactment
F.M.S. Cap. 18
The Limitation Ordinance
Johore Enactment No. 23
The Limitation Enactment
Kelantan Enactment No. 4 of 1930
The Limitation Enactment 1930
Kedah Enactment No. 60
Enactment No. 60 (Limitation)
Terengganu Enactment No. 20 of 1356 Limitation Enactment 1356
Perlis Enactment No. 3 of 1344
Limitation Enactment 1344
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ACT 254
Laws of Malaysia
LAWS OF MALAYSIA
Act 254
LIMITATION ACT 1953
LIST OF AMENDMENTS
Amending law
Short title
In force from
L.N. 332/1958
Federal constitution
13-11-1958
(Modification of Laws)
(Ordinances and Proclamations)
Order 1958
P.U. (A) 109/1982
Revision of Laws (Limitation
19-11-1981
Act 1953) Order 1982
Limitation
27
LAWS OF MALAYSIA
Act 254
LIMITATION ACT 1953
LIST OF SECTIONS AMENDED
Section
Amending law
In force from
--NIL--
DICETAK OLEH
PERCETAKAN NASIONAL MALAYSIA BERHAD,
KUALA LUMPUR
BAGI PIHAK DAN DENGAN PERINTAH KERAJAAN MALAYSIA
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Laws of Malaysia